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In 1960, Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Douglas McGregor, who was one of Lewin's associates, published The Human Side of Enterprise. Here he delineated a pair of conflicting theories of management based on human nature. "Theory X" believes that humans are biologically passive, self-centered and indolent and thus require active control and management to encourage productivity. Conversely, "Theory Y" believes that humans are inherently motivated to personally develop and do their best. They will show the most productivity in their behavior and actions if given the maximum amount of responsibility for their own work. McGregor recognized the reality of Theory X, but said that it is the result of over-controlling management rather than the proof of its necessity. He suggested changing the traditional Theory X-style of management practices to provide more individual responsibility. In short:
Theory X Managers assume the average worker
? is gullible and not very bright.
? is indifferent to the organization's needs.
? dislikes work.
? · is motivated only by financial incentives[continue]
"Participative Management" (2005, January 13) Retrieved September 2, 2014, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/Participative-Management-61031
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