Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from essay:
Accounting for Decision Making
Shelter Partnership's Case Study
Purposes of Cost Information
The intended purpose of cost information is to provide a basis for determining the expenses and revenues associated with a particular activity (or cost object). Generally, cost and income is measured in order to determine net income or profit margins. However, as Shelter Partnerships is a non-profit, the cost information forms a basis for the allocation of resources and to assist with decisions about scaling. The cost information of Shelter Partnerships can also be used to address any cycles in the stream of donations and contributions that can impact the overall ability of the non-profit to meet its mission. In addition, since Shelter Partnership regularly applies for grant funding, it is essential that their accounting system be readily interpretable to grant reviewing bodies. Fund development cannot be sustained for long in an environment that is only loosely accountable for revenue -- in fact, this is one of the public's most common criticisms of not-for-profit organizations, and it is often their undoing (or at least that of their executive directors). Shelter Partnership must ensure that their books provide an accurate accounting of all operational expenditures and all funds received -- regardless of the source (including "in-kind").
Shelter Partnership cost objects. The cost objects for the Shelter Partnership include the technical assistance work, the program development work, and the public policy support work. Each of these cost objects has a discrete focus and cost should be separately measured for those objects (Averkamp 2011).
Shelter Resource Bank cost objects. The cost object for the Partnership Shelter Resource Bank consists of the direct material assistance to the homeless shelters.
Where over-head and administrative costs are shared, the percentage of costs should be allocated to the objects according to use or consumption (Averkamp 2011).
Accuracy of Ruth Schwartz' Estimates
Schwartz did not organize the financial accounts separately for the Shelter and the Resource Bank, though they are essentially two distinct business units. The single stage cost accounting system that Schwartz used creates distortions because more than a single activity is occurring under that accounting system and, further, the percentages of over-head costs used for the different activities are not reflected when a single enterprise-wide accounting system is used. The Shelter Partnership has four distinct activities divided across two business units ("Shelter Partnership" 2011). A traditional two-stage cost allocation system of accounting would provide greater accuracy and detail that would better suit the needs of a non-profit that is active in fund development.
Issues about accounting for revenues were addressed in the section on the purposes of cost information. Suffice it to say -- here -- that Schwartz' method of consolidating all revenue into one pot does not serve the agency well (Martin 2010).
Schwartz' financial statement, as categorically expressed, is a bit of an amalgamation between a budget and a financial statement. With personnel as the largest line item, Schwartz should break down that account in more detail, particularly since personnel are shared across the two main business units. She has carefully delineated costs for office expenses -- which are quite minor compared to personnel costs -- but then resorted to lumping all costs for all regular employees together. Schwartz has identified specific personnel costs by role for the independent contractor positions, and this should definitely be done for the regular employees, if not on the financial statement, then on the annual budget. Schwartz's approach is not consistent on the financial statement: If personnel salaries are to be grouped, then independent contractor wages should also be grouped. Also, costs of benefits and payroll tax expenses (PTE) should not be rolled into the salaries on the budget (as the case study narrative indicates). Benefits are often re-negotiated and PTE can vary across fiscal periods, so both of these items should be segregated (as they have been on the Schwartz' statement -- at least for some of the staff).
Addressing "The Concern"
Schwartz is right to be concerned about her accounting for both the warehouse space and the cost of insurance for the Resource Bank.
The warehouse space. It is not good accounting practice to omit from the books a large in-kind contribution to a non-profit (Averkamp 2011). That Shelter Partnership has a business relationship with the General Services Administration (GSA) conveys a level of organizational stability that funders will find appealing. And, as Schwartz appropriately surmised, the warehouse space might qualify as an asset (or a liability, if it is leased space), depending on the agreement with the GSA. Without acknowledging the warehouse space on the budget or the financial statement, Schwartz leaves a large gap that will set lenders wondering -- which is generally not a good thing to do.
Insurance costs. There is a substantive difference between what was allocated on the budget ($8,000) for insurance and the amount that was actually spent ($2,925) on insurance in 1990. Absent designations of insurance costs to the two business units, it is unclear what accounts for this difference. For simple cost accounting, and to support budget decisions, the insurance costs of the Shelter Partnership and those of the Shelter Resource Bank should be discrete. Particularly important is a clear idea of the cost of automobile insurance and insurance that covers those individuals involved in the loading and unloading of the truck.
Certainly the total premium for Shelter Partnership should not be driven by the Resource Bank, as attributed to Schwartz in the narrative. It is reasonable to expect that the Shelter Partnership will have a business insurance premium that covers office equipment, liability insurance covering Officers and Directors, and an insurance umbrella that covers any liabilities which might occur as a result of carrying out the duties and responsibilities of the business, much of which takes place in community settings. The liability umbrella ought to be written to cover both the Shelter Partnership and the Shelter Resource Bank, or two separate policies should be written. Regardless of policy types, there are likely to be discounts for multiple policies, which have been known to reduce overall insurance costs over a single policy approach.
Prestige Telephone Company
Results of Operations
Depreciation. An accounting irregularity can be seen in the method used for quarterly reporting of depreciation. The computer leasing cost should not appear as a lump sum on the quarterly report. Office equipment, such as computers and servers and peripheral equipment, is depreciated, and it is the depreciated amount -- as determined by the selected depreciation schedule -- that is entered in the reports for the period. Since the quarterly report format used by Prestige Data Service shows three separate months, the depreciation amount in each column will be 1/12 of the annual depreciation cost. Assuming that the $26,500 depreciation cost is accurate, the $95,000 cost of the computer leases would not be listed as a monthly expense on the quarterly report. Correcting this error would result in a positive balance for each month, accordingly: January net income = $53,528; February net income = $54,659, March net income = $73,562. Accrued depreciation costs would actually be shown over the period of depreciation in a contra asset account, Accumulated Depreciation.
Rental space. Further, the cost to rent space is an expense to Prestige Data Services, but it is revenue for Prestige Telephone Company. As such, it should be deducted from the overall net income (for purposes of analysis, not in actuality) when considering the real costs of operations. It is wholly appropriate for the subsidiary journals to show the cost of rent, but it may be an arbitrarily assigned cost if the building space is owned by Prestige Telephone Company. In that case, it is fair to assume that costs for utilities and maintenance should reasonably be charged to the subsidiary, but a direct expense for leased space may be a burden unfairly charged against the profit margin. Should Prestige Telephone Company elect to maintain the space rent arrangement with its subsidiary, it would be appropriate for the two entities to establish a consolidated income statement that accurately shows revenue derived from Prestige Data Services.
Available service hours. Since service is made available to commercial customers for 24 hours each weekday and for 8 hours each Saturday, it does not make sense to include the service hours in the calculations for the total revenue hours. Not only should this figure be listed separately, but any variation from month to month -- prorated by the number of days in the month -- should be discernable and attributable. If the contractor providing the computer service and maintenance cannot be held to a half-day Saturday and Sunday schedule, the company should consider hiring a different contractor.
The commercial sales of computer use would need to approach 224 hours on average each month in order for the Prestige Data Systems business unit to break even (Arsharm 2011). The calculations are as follows:
Q = Break-even point (units of production)
FC = Fixed Costs
VC = Variable…[continue]
"Accounting For Decision-Making" (2011, June 09) Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/accounting-for-decision-making-118580
"Accounting For Decision-Making" 09 June 2011. Web.25 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/accounting-for-decision-making-118580>
"Accounting For Decision-Making", 09 June 2011, Accessed.25 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/accounting-for-decision-making-118580
Accounting for Decision Making Roland Anderson is the manager of the Ekland Division of Ystad Industries and has some decisions to make based on accounting data. Anderson is also being considered for the CEO position of the company which makes his dilemma even greater. He is unhappy with the profitability for the first quarter and is considering maxing out the capacity of the operation in the second quarter. It was found
Rational people think on the brink of the margin. This means that a rational decision-maker takes action if and only if the marginal benefit of the action exceeds the marginal cost. People tend to always respond to incentives. Behavior often changes when costs or benefits change (Principles of Economics, 2006). People make decisions based upon two things. What they are going to get out of the decision and how much
Ethics and Accounting - Financial Decision-Making Ethics in Accounting and Financial Decision Making The article Ethical guidance and constraints under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 by R.M. Orin (2008), espouses the belief that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act did not go far enough in its desire to stop unethical financial practices by businesses. The article addresses what the Act actually does, which is to help companies practice more due diligence and lessen the chances
The two scenarios are likely to sway employees to provide false information if they are encouraged. However, the relationship had much strength in the positive. Therefore, in this study, there were clear choices. The participants were required to either tell the truth or lie. If things were easy for individuals in the world, lines of making moral decisions tend to be much fuzzier, however, the bottom line remains the same
Decision Making and Accounting Theories Business owners find that they always have to put on business hats when they are starting up or managing their businesses. However in business it is not the owners who are meant to make decisions only, decisions can also be made by employees. When classification of business decisions is done it is on the basis of how predictable that particular decision is. Programmed decisions are those
Accounting Information for Decision Making Corporate Confirming on Water Risk (Feb 2010) indicates that the Global Confirming Initiative (GRI) G3 Guidelines' five water-related indications (total withdrawal volume by source, ponds considerably impacted by distributions, percentage and total amount of water recycled and used again, total water discharge by quality and destination, and identification water physiques and related habitats impacted by discharges) make the perfect beginning point for assessing and confirming water
00 income if Mr. Pecos accepted the committed sale made by his Office Assistant Manager. Prepare a contribution margin income statement for the month Based on Mr. Peco's Decision Recommended Sales 286,500.00* 578,000.00** Variable Cost 245 per unit) 925*245-226,625.00) 471,625.00) Fixed Cost Income Computed as follows: of units Selling Price Accepted Orders by Sam Smooth talk Accepted Orders by Harry Hustler Accepted Orders by Garry Giftofgab Total Selling Price 286,500.00* Computed as follows of units Selling Price Recommended orders to accept: Total amount of accepted order Total Selling Price 203000+286,500 578,000.00** Assumption that $475,000 fixed cost is