Such ratings are affected by different human factors which may or may not provide an unbiased feedback.
Ratings are affected by social and situation factors, such as the opportunity to observe and the image of themselves that people try to convey. Raters' motivation to pay attention, recall behaviors observed, and base their judgments on fact will influence the accuracy of their ratings. Having an incentive (e.g., a monetary reward) for accuracy and being asked to recall observed behaviors are ways to enhance accuracy..." (London, 2003).
There are different individual characters considered in providing the evaluation or the feedbacks for developmental purposes. Such characteristics include observation skills, self-monitoring ability and empathy.
Observation skills involve gathering and recording of data that represents job performance. This observation skill is done to give evaluation without judgment or bias.
In this situation, the success and intensity of impact of the feedbacks for developmental purposes lie on the observers him/herself. (London, 2003).
Skilled observers understand the effects of individual characteristics and situational conditions on people's behavior. Some people are better observers than others because they are able to monitor and recall cues in various situations. Good observers generally are experienced observers similar to the people they are observing, high in self-awareness, high in cognitive complexity, and socially intelligent and they are known for the ability to make swift and accurate judgments of other people." (London, 2003).
Self-monitoring on the other hand, is an act of being sensitive to other people' reactions. People with high self-monitoring skills can provide assistance to other employees especially n job situations where interpersonal sensitivity, such as a gender-nontraditional jobs (e.g., men in the nursing field) is at stake (London, 2003).
These employees must not only perform well, but also show that they belong in the role. They benefit greatly from the adaptive self-presentation skills of high self-monitoring." (London, 2003).
Lastly, empathy is one's ability to know and understand others' feelings and emotions. People who have great skills to empathize have the ability to take the perspective of others and understand the situations in which they find themselves while maintaining a social distance from the people being observed. Also, people with high empathy have the capability to "distinguish between factors in the environment that influence a person's behavior and aspects of the person's past that influence his or her behavior" (London, 2003).
Clearly, from this point-of-view, feedbacks for developmental purposes are given not only to enhance the performance of the receiver of the feedback but also to give him/her an appraisal or commendation for a work done successfully. The approaches used in giving the right developmental feedback will always be based on the performance of the person and the observations noted by the supervisor and the peers.
Hence, feedbacks for developmental purposes can be in the form of negative or a positive feedback. Positive feedbacks are the judgments which imply that the observer is satisfied with the performance of the person being observed. Negative feedback, on the other hand, refers to judgments that serve as criticisms and imply a need for changes. Naturally, any receiver of the feedbacks would be delighted upon receiving a positive feedback and would feel disappointment and will later on fear the negative feedback.
But there is another way of viewing positive and negative feedbacks. Feedbacks is said to be positive if it offer learning. Moreover, a feedback is considered positive if its impact may be in the form of motivating the recipient, for example, by increasing confidence, making new meaning, increasing understanding, helping to make links and connections. Meanwhile, a feedback is perceived to be negative if does nothing but demotivate the recipient. Such demotivation may be in the form of discouraging, being overly judgmental, critical, giving unclear or contradictory messages and encouraging dependence on others for assessing progress (Askew, 2000).
Feedbacks for developmental purposes sometimes encourage comparison and competition among the employees.
The belief that comparisons between individuals encourage people to work harder to achieve their goals needs to be challenged. Comparison can lead to competition and may result in some individuals giving up, feeling they are failures and evaluating their abilities negatively." (Askew, 2000)
Feedbacks with Administrative Purposes
Feedbacks with administrative purposes are significant particularly in situations wherein the subordinates are dependent on the supervisor what normally happens with the new employees, trainees, or people in highly structured jobs. In other instances, supervisors (who normally give this type of feedbacks) are already trained or experienced in acting as a "counselor" that will enable him/her to strategically and effectively react to problems such as how to deal with subordinates who have an "inflated self-evaluation or, conversely, an unnecessarily self-deprecating view" (London, 1997).
Evidently, feedbacks with administrative purposes are the role of the top management or the supervisors. They are to over the business and an important part of the business is the human resource. It is the supervisors' job to provide clear instructions on how things should be done especially if the type of business is highly structured. It is the responsibility of the supervisors to maintain continuity of flow in the whole business operation by guiding and overseeing the workers and seeing to it that every step is followed. It is also imparted in the responsibilities of the supervisor to ensure that he/she handles properly the different types of problems that the subordinates may encounter especially if its about their evaluation, appraisal and growth.
In the interview conducted among the GlaxoSmithKline supervisors and subordinates, interviewees revealed that:
Normally, there are designated dates where employee ratings are conducted. This is the time that supervisors sit and talk with the subordinates. This can be an open conversation wherein the subordinate is allowed to state what is in his/her mind, particularly that which concerns the workflow of the department. Grievances, praises and even career path of the subordinates are all raised and discussed. At the same time, the supervisor provides clear and unbiased feedbacks regarding the performance of the subordinate on a particular time coverage.
In our company, employees are rated on a quarterly basis. Hence, I get to sit down and talk with my subordinates quarterly to analyze their performance. I allow my subordinates to talk about their desires for salary increase and why they deem it necessary. In the same manner, I offer them reasons why or why not the increase or the promotion is due for them." - Paolo Conder (GSK Supervisor, Marketing Department)
However, there are also times wherein it is not necessary to wait for the designated ratings date before the supervisor provides feedback to his/her subordinates. If the supervisor sees that there are things or actions that need to be corrected he/she can give the developmental feedback which aims to benefit not only the company but also the employee him/herself. In the same manner, if the supervisor deems it necessary to appreciate or commend an employee for a job well done, he/she can also initiate giving the particular subordinate with a feedback for his developmental purposes.
A always consider it an opportunity to enhance growth and development - personality or career wise - of my subordinates when I give them feedbacks regarding their works and/or performance. May it be a negative or positive feedback, it is always for their own good." - Kristy Clark (GSK, Human Resource Supervisor)
Also, as supervisors/managers, they have already earned the necessary experience and knowledge which allow them to understand and even preempt the possible responses and even reactions of their subordinates once a feedback for developmental purposes is given.
With the nature of our organization, every task is routinely done. I have to ensure that my subordinates follow the feedbacks with administrative purposes that I am giving them or else the flow of operation will be jeopardized. With that, I always consider first if my instructions will be heard or understood clearly even before I will be giving them. I also have to analyze the possible reactions of my subordinates upon giving my feedbacks. Will they be confused? Will they follow it? is it against their standards? These are the common thoughts that I have in mind prior to giving them my administrative feedbacks." - Sandy Reyes (RMF, Media Department)
The new hires and the trainees are always in strict guidance of the supervisors. This is because they need to be trained properly of the overall flow of organizations, particular their key responsibilities. This is why most feedback with administrative purposes are given to the new hires and/or trainees. Needless to say, they do not yet the ins and outs of the organization and it's the role of the supervisors that they understand everything.
Normally, I provide a written copy of the rules and regulations, the lists of tasks and expectations for the subordinates. But this does not mean that the administrative feedbacks will end there. From time to time, I will be checking my subordinates and see if they have been doing good.…