Alzheimer's Disease While Most People Term Paper
- Length: 7 pages
- Subject: Disease
- Type: Term Paper
- Paper: #46206930
Excerpt from Term Paper :
In fact, many researchers believed that free radicals, produced when the body burns oxygen to produce energy consumed in food, may be at cause. Free radicals are believed to damage brain cells by taking electrons away from the body's healthy molecules to balance themselves. A few 'free radicals' is not a problem.
IF there are too many free radicals, the 'oxidative damage' affects the brain causing AD symptoms (Healing with Nutrition Web site).
Other risk factors
Odle (2003) notes that if a person has a first-degree relative (parent, sibling) with AD, that person's relative risk of getting it is about 3.5, or that person is 3.5 times more likely than the rest of us to develop AD. When the number of first-degree relatives rises to two or more, the relative risk rises to about 7.5.
In addition, people with Down syndrome, who have an extra APP gene, which is located on the 21 chromosomes, also have an increased risk above that of the general population; it is set at about 2.5 (Odle, 2003).
Researchers also noted that less obvious risk factors exist, including hypertension (high blood pressure) which predisposes some people to AD and vascular dementia (Boustnie et al., 2003 and Kawas et al., 1999).
Another list of risk factors includes:
Lack of participation in meaningful mental activities (Shumaker 2003, Coyle 2003, Green et al. 2003).
Further, lack of education seems to double the risk of dementia in those over age 75. And traumatic events that lead to unconsciousness and/or hospitalization, as well as repeated head injuries, lead to a relative risk rating higher than 2 (Kawas 1999).
It is apparent that most current research is being done on genetic causes of AD; of course, as many researchers noted, environmental factors may cause genetic factors to 'turn on' and begin a disease process. In addition, there seems to be developing a complex of physical conditions involving genes, proteins and enzymes that is suggestive in ascertaining the likelihood that certain populations will experience AD.
Alzheimers head injury risk." Australasian Business Intelligence, 2002, Unpaged. 25 ct. 2005 http://www.highbeam.com.
Barker D, Osmond C, Simmonds S, Wield G. "The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in later life." BMJ 306:422-426 (1993).
Bick KL. "The early story of Alzheimer disease." In: Terry, RD, Katzman R, Bick KL, Sisodia SS, eds. Alzheimer Disease. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:1-10.
Blank, Robert H. "Brain Scan: Studying the Human Brain Reveals Complex Issues. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 1998;13,3:90+.
Boustani M, Peterson B, Hanson L, Harris R. Lohr KN. Screening for dementia in primary care: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(11):927-937.
Causes of Alzheimers." 25 Oct. 2005. http://www.paralumun.com/alzheimercauses.htm.
Chandra V, Pandav R. Gene-environment interaction in Alzheimer's disease: a potential role for cholesterol. Neuroepidemiology 17:225-32 (1998).
Coyle JT. Use it or lose it-do effortful mental activities protect against dementia? N. Engl J. Med. 2003;348:2489-2490.
Droller, Daniel. "Early environmental origins of neurodegenerative disease in later life. (Research / Mini-Monograph) Environmental Health Perspectives (2005, Sept. 1).
Genetics and dementia." Alzheimer's Society Information Sheet. (June 2003)
Genetics and Pathobiology of Vascular Cognitive Impairment." Environmental Health Perspectives. 2004; 112, 16: 950+.
Green RC, Cupples LA, Kurz A, et al. Depression as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:753-759.
Hecht, Annabel. "Searching for Clues to Alzheimer's Disease." FDA Consumer, 1985;19:23+.
Kawas CH, Katzman R. Epidemiology of dementia and Alzheimer disease. In: Terry RD, Katzman R, Bick KL, Sisodia SS, eds. Alzheimer Disease. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999:95-116.
Magnesium. Magnesium Research (1996) 9, 2, 139-141
Mayeux R, Ottman R, Maestre G, Ngai C, Tang M-X, et al. Synergistic effects of traumatic head injury and apolipoprotein-[epsilon]4 in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 45:555-57 (1995)
Odle, Teresa G. "Alzheimer disease and other dementias." Radiologic Technology; 2003, unpaged. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www.highbeam.com.
Rose, Richard J. "Genes and Human Behavior." Annual Review of Psychology. 1995; 46:625+.
Rutter, Michael and Judy Silberg. "Gene-Environment Interplay in Relation to Emotional and Behavioral DisturbanceAnnual Review of Psychology, 2002: 463+.
Shumaker SA, Legault C, Rapp SR, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and the incidence of dementia…