American Civil War in Which Term Paper

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A year later, May 8-19, 1864, Lee was again in Virginia at the Battle of Spotsylvania, leading 50,000 men against Ulysses S. Grant's Union forces of 83,000. Again Lee won the battle which resulted in 27, 399 casualties, 18, 399 Union and 9,000 Confederate. The Battle of Antietam in Maryland, on September 17,1862 was commanded by Lee with 51, 844 troops and George B. McClellan with 75,316 Union troops. The Union won with 12,410 casualties, against the 13,724 Confederate casualties.

The Battle of the Wilderness, in Virginia, May 5-7, 1864, was decided 'inconclusive,' although Lee, with 61,025 men was up against Grant's 101,895 troops, moreover, the Union suffered 17,666 casualties while the Confederates, only 7,750 casualties. Lee won another Virginia battle, the Battle of Second Manassas, August 29-30, 1862, with 48,527 men against John Pope's 75,527 men, resulting in Union casualties of 16,054 and 9,197 Confederate. On December 31, 1862, the Union won the Battle of Stone's River in Tennessee with William S. Rosecrans leading 41,400 Union troops against Bragg's 37,739 men, resulting in 12,906 Union casualties and 11,739 Confederate. Grant won the Battle of Shiloh, in Tennessee, April 6-7, 1862, with 62,682 soldiers against 40,335 men led by Albert Sidney Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard, resulting in 13,047 Union casualties and 10,694 Confederate. Grant won the Battle of Fort Donelson in Tennessee, February 13-16, 1862, leading 27,000 men against 21,000 led by John B. Floyd and Simon B. Buckner, resulting in 19,455 Union casualties and 16,623 Confederate.

Approximately 200,000 African-Americans fought for the Union Army, the majority of which were former slaves. For African-Americans who recount the war, past and present, the Civil War was not a war to save the Union or for Southern independence, but as a war to end slavery.

On April 9, 1865, at the Appomattox Court House in Virginia, Grant sent a letter to Lee asking for surrender and stating the terms, then in closing, "each officer and man will be allowed to return to his home, not to be disturbed by United States authority so long as they observe their paroles and the laws in force where they may reside." Lee responded by accepting the terms of surrender, stating, "I will proceed to designate the proper officers to carry the stipulations into effect." The American Civil War had ended.

Five days later on April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth shot President Abraham Lincoln at Washington's Ford's Theater and Andrew Johnson became the 17th president. On December 18, 1865, the 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution abolishes slavery.

The following week, on December 24, the Ku Klux Klan is founded in Pulaski, Tennessee and Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest is appointed the first Grand Wizard.

After 1877, the American North worked hard to forget the deeper meanings of the American Civil War, and the practice of "Decorations Day" became a ritual in many Northern communities. This annual decoration of the graves of the Civil War dead would eventually become known as Memorial Day, and by 1890 had become a legal holiday in every Northern state, marked by parades and speeches emphasizing the bravery of Union soldiers rather than the legacy of emancipation, however as early as the 1870's, celebrants often even commemorated the bravery of the Confederate soldiers.

Works Cited

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The American Civil War Overview." Retrieved July 19, 2005 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/overview.htm

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Chronology of American History." Retrieved July 19, 2005 at http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/chron19.cfm

Grant, U.S.; Lee, Robert E. "Terms of Lee's Surrender and His Farewell: Terms

Of Lee's Surrender at Appomattox. History of the World. 1992 January 01.

Retrieved July 19, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Poole, W. Scott. "Memory and the abolitionist heritage: Thomas Wentworth

Higginson and the uncertain meaning of the Civil War." Civil War History. 2005, June 01.Retrieved July 19, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Span, Christopher M. "Black Flag over Dixie: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War." The Journal of African-American History. 2005, January 01. Retrieved July 19, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

The Ten Costliest Battles of the Civil War." Retrieved July 19, 2005 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/Battles.htm

Wood, John Halsey, Jr. "The 1861 Spring Resolutions." Journal of Church and State. 2005, March 22. Retrieved July 19, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Civil War." Retrieved July 19, 2005 at http://www.civilwar.com/

Causes of the Civil War." Retrieved July 19, 2005 at http://www.us-civilwar.com/

American Civil War." Retrieved July 19, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War

Causes of the Civil War." Retrieved July 19, 2005 at http://www.us-civilwar.com/

Wood, John Halsey, Jr. "The 1861 Spring Resolutions." Journal of Church and State. 2005, March 22. Retrieved July 19, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

The American Civil War Overview." Retrieved July 19, 2005 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/overview.htm

The Ten Costliest Battles of the Civil War." Retrieved July 19, 2005 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/Battles.htm

Span, Christopher M. "Black Flag over Dixie: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War." The Journal of African-American History. 2005, January 01. Retrieved July 19, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.

Grant,…[continue]

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