Role of Fatty Acid on Endothelial Functions Essay
- Length: 10 pages
- Sources: 10
- Subject: Government - Presidential Studies
- Type: Essay
- Paper: #56549440
Excerpt from Essay :
Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Endothelial Functions
Role of fatty acid on endothelial functions
Antioxidants and Marine N-3 Fatty Acids Improves Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic People
The hypercholesterolemic people refer to the individuals who suffer from the high concentration of cholesterol in their bodies. These hypercholesterolemic people normally needs the improvement of their endothelial functions in order accommodate the high levels of cholesterol in their bodies. The individuals normally witness a change in their aortic consequently altering their endothelial functions. Hypercholesterolemia is responsible for alteration of dilatation function of the endothelium in the small blood vessels. Further, the alteration of the aortic functioning also makes the patients be susceptible to higher blood pressure. Studies show that the patients normally witness abnormality in the endothelium-dependent dilator function in the human circulation (Goodfellow et al., 2002). The extent of impairment (endothelium-dependent dilator) depends on the level of hypercholesterolemia. From this, it is true that any factor, which will help in restoring the endothelium functions, will help in counteracting some of the effects resulting from hypercholesterolemia.
The marine n-3 fatty acids always associate to the vascular functions making its mechanism is linked to improving the endothelial functions. Most of the studies have shown that the supplementation the diet with marine fish helps in preventing some of the coronary diseases. The mechanism for the action of n-3 fatty acids associates with its action in improving the profile of the serum lipid and decreasing the blood pressure. Further, the n-3 fatty acids also act in preventing the aggregation of platelet while also generating vasodilator prostaglandins. The production of vasodilator prostaglandins makes the omega-3 fatty acids to be essential in improving the vascular functions. The antioxidant vitamin serves in complementing the action of the fish oil rich diet by reducing the oxidative stress consequently resulting to improved endothelial functions. The antioxidants also prove important in improving the endothelial function in its action of acting against the oxidative stress. However, the antioxidants can only work in the presence of the omega-3 fatty acids because of the recognized effects of hypercholesterolemia on the endothelial functions (vascular relaxation).
Many studies carried out on the influence of fish on the health of individuals have established that people who ate at least two fish meals diet in a week had less association to coronary heart disease. This helps in explaining the effect of fish oil diet on improving the endothelial functions. People who associate with coronary diseases, such as high blood pressure normally exhibit endothelial dysfunctions. Considering that one of the major causes of coronary diseases is high amount of cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) it is true that the inclusion of fish oil diet is significant in improving the health of the hypercholesterolmic people. Evidences that are more recent associated to the death of individuals, resulting from coronary heart diseases shows that there were less deaths associated to the individuals eating at least 35 g of fish. Men who consumed 35 g or more of fish daily compared with those who consumed none had a relative risk of death from CHD of 0.62 and a relative risk of no sudden death from MI of 0.33 (Khan et al., 2002).
Study carried on the influence of omega 3 fatty acid on hypercholesterolmic individuals shows that there is a similarity in all the groups concerning the changes witnessed in blood flow associated with the brachial artery. The test was carried immediately after the wrist cuff release (peak flow, 1 min after cuff release and 3 min after sublingual GTN) (Loscalzo, 2003). The treatment with omega-3 fatty acids showed a higher influence in increasing significantly the flow-mediated dilation as compared to treatment with placebo. However, the table shows that omega-3 fatty acids treatment resulted to reduction for triglyceride. Further, the fatty acids did not present any influence on the serum concentration of the total cholesterol (VLDL, LDL or HDL cholesterol). The treatment with placebo did not exhibit any significant influence on the level of lipid. Consequently, the figures also shows that the reduction for triglycerides do not have correlation to the improvement in the endothelium-dependent FMD. Further, there was similarity in the dilation caused by the glyceryl trinitrate in both groups.
Influence of the omega-3 fatty acids
Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids causes an improvement in the endothelium-dependent FMD associated to the brachial artery. The brachial arteries have similar characteristics to the coronary artery, with studies showing that brachial responses have a close correlation to the response related to the coronary circulation. Further, the treatment with the marine omega-3 fatty acids results to a significant reduction for triglycerides, as always reported in the existing studies. Existing studies shows that there is no significant relation between the improvement in endothelial functions and level triglyceride. The hypercholesterolemia subjects used in the study exhibited higher total LDL cholesterol with a slightly elevated triglyceride levels (Fahs et al., 2012). This situation means that the improvement in the endothelial functions cannot have correlation to the reduction in the triglycerides. The disease, hypertriglyceridemia normally have lesser relation to atherosclerosis than elevated LDL cholesterol. Consequently, the use of multivariate analysis in the LDL and HDL cholesterol contributes to disappearance of their association to the hypertriglyceridemia.
The antioxidants in the presence of the omega-3 fatty acids reduce the oxygen-derived free radical created in neutrophils and monocytes. The two, antioxidants and the omega-3 fatty acids, undergo a mechanism involving reduction in the oxygen radical formation and the increase in the subsequent increase in the availability of nitric oxide, in the endothelial cells. Many studies carried out on the influence of fish on the health of individuals have established that people who ate at least two fish meals diet in a week had less association to coronary heart disease. This helps in explaining the effect of fish oil diet on improving the endothelial functions. People who associate with coronary diseases, such as high blood pressure normally exhibit endothelial dysfunctions. Considering that one of the major causes of coronary diseases is high amount of cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), it is true that the inclusion of fish oil diet is significant in improving the health of the hypercholesterolmic people (Khan et al., 2002).
The double blind method used for the study, with the placebo group acting as the control, showed that the n-3 fatty acids have a correlation to the endothelial functions. The study shows that the n-3 fatty acids, contained in fish oils improves the endothelial functions in the hypercholesterolemia patients especially those having large systemic arteries. Further, the study also presents an incidence of FMD loss in the brachial artery. The FMD loss always impairs the activity of the endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) in hypercholesterolemia patients (Hamazaki, 2001). The response of the normal dilator to GTN shows that there is preservation of the ability of the vascular smooth muscle dilator to respond to nitric oxide. The inclusion of 4 IU vitamins also help in illustrating the role played by the antioxidant in improving endothelial functions.
Mechanism for action of omega-3 fatty acids
Possible mechanism for the action of omega-3 fatty acids in improving endothelial function associates to the bilipid layer composition with multiple potential effects on endothelial functions. The fish oil rich diet, containing the omega-3 fatty acids, has both the EPA and DHA. The increase in the size of the membrane associated with the two substances (EPA and DHA) has direct relation to the improvement in the endothelial functions. This is true considering the effects of increasing the amount of the acids in the membrane of the red cells. According to the influence associated with the EPA and DHA, it is true that the supplementation by the n-3 fatty acids acts in altering the membrane fluidity of the endothelial cells (Goodfellow et al., 2002).
Action of the antioxidants
The improved fluidity helps in triggering an increased synthesis for nitric oxide. It is hard to ignore the role of the antioxidants in complementing the action of marine omega-3 fatty acids. The fish oil rich diet normally contains some amount of antioxidant in the form of vitamin E The antioxidant vitamin serves in complementing the action of the fish oil rich diet by reducing the oxidative stress consequently resulting to improved endothelial functions. The antioxidants in the presence of the omega-3 fatty acids reduce the oxygen derived free radical formation in neutrophils and monocytes (Khan et al., 2002). The reduction process results to enhancement of nitric oxide production in the endothelial cells. Consequently, the basic mechanism involves the process of reduction in the oxygen radical formation and the increase in the subsequent increase in the availability of nitric oxide, in the endothelial cells.
The intake of omega-3 fatty acid arising from fish diet has a correlation to the level of serum triglyceride in the body. Research carried shows that 4 g/d of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil decreased the concentration of serum triglyceride by 25% to 30% (Kris-Etherton et al., 2002). In the process of reducing the concentration of serum triglyceride, the omega-3 fatty…