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Artificial Intelligence and the Human Brain
Although artificial intelligence is not a new debate topic, until now, there is no exact evidence that proves that scientists and philosophies have been reaching an agreement about the existence of this feature in our world. Scientists still claim that artificial intelligence is possible to achieve and the next technology advancement would be able to release the creation. On the other hand, many parties persist with their disagreement on the creation of human-intelligent machine.
In the reality, computer scientists have made much progress with their machine improvement that follow the concept of artificial intelligence. The earlier generation had built computer as the assisting device to accomplish difficult mathematics calculation and completing time-consuming tasks. In the future, computer scientists expect that they would be able to create computer that would be able to make their own decision just like human being does, with extra points on the accuracy and time-saving features.
The creation of the machine has been flowing through series of researches that utilize adaptation of human brain performance to build artificial intelligence concept. The brain is a solid feature, but also flexible and active with the adjustment to develop and increase capability as it gets more input from the environment. Brain works like a machine, but in human, the machine has the soul.
A. What Has the Field of Artificial Intelligence Taught Us About How We Think?
Human brain develops similar mechanical ability to recognize things and learn from the outside source. Outside sources can be the resources for human so human realizes the existence in the system.
The function of robots, as the most common feature in recent artificial intelligence researches, is also based on the ability of the robots to recognize information and input from the operator or the sensory devices installed in the system.
The common intelligence tests in current education process usually count the ability of students to perform "memory ability" (capability to receive information, memorizing, recognizing), and "abstract analytical abilities" (involves analysis, making judgments, making comparison, and evaluation) (Sternberg, 1998).
Harris (2003) called artificial intelligence as the "recreation of human thought process, if scientists later can accomplish the feature. Such machine with this sophisticated characteristics will be directed to think, learn, reason, and use language just like human. In the advanced position, the machine should be able to combine the assortment of capabilities and create initial conception from its analysis.
To fulfill the whole objective in creating intelligent machine, while still following the concept of human brain, computers often come into several facets to judge:
The ability to solve problems
The ability to learn
The ability to carry out social tasks.
Computers, and other high level machines have exceeded the problem-solving basic. This is the fundamental of every computer creation, in which hardware and software come with special characteristic to finish operation, to calculate, to process data, to follow the flowchart of computing process. Based on the comparing and achieving methodology, computer can produce answer to a specific problem in short time.
Robots learn indeed. In modern technology, robot scientists have enhanced robot's function not only to accept and execute commands, but also to develop certain thinking pattern, in which they present certain situational options and allow the robot to choose the best solution to solve the problem based on the examination of facts surrounding the problem.
The learning capacity of robots differs from those of human's. Robot technology, although perhaps have reached the advanced time, still cannot escape from the capacity limitation. Robot commonly only performs particular function based on the information it receives. It is designed to follow certain steps, customized procedures, to complete single task. Robot stores the information in its memory and able to retrieve the information in other time with perfect accuracy, so that it will be able to perform similar task with similar result.
Robot shows human that it can interact socially, with other creature or with human by observing the other's behavior and imitate it to be accepted by the opposing partner. Sometimes human adjust to find exact pattern that leads him/her to the correct interpretation of the situation/problem. From this observation and pattern discovered, the brain develops specific respond.
However, for robots, there is also limitation for social interaction. Human brain develops pattern, such as how robot perform. Inputs can be associated with stimulation, in which human work, and learn from the pattern, and give special responds according to the pattern, which is called learning development. Human definition of social interaction is quite broad and involves multiple psychological elements, which is difficult to translate for machine.
The feature above shows that human brain works slight differently from robots, as robots don't realize but develop analysis on the function of the individual robot in the system, so he learns function to help, to complete tasks, to organize things
Those evaluations above however still needs to be improved, as there are more to human thinking capability, which involves creative and practical thinking. Practical thinking, which also takes bigger part in human life after leaving the academic world in school, deals with persuasive and communication skills, to enhance the capability shown in analytical skills. Creative skill is also an important element in human life to find alternative solution; also prompt action when dealing with unexpected situation and often comes in unpredictable manner.
Computers' working performance is commonly associated with speed and reliability. The faster a computer works with high-degree of satisfaction seen in the result, the higher its viability is seen through the users.
Referring to the presumption, human should see that computer's work line is similar to human's brain. Brain receives and transfers information through neuron cells, with speed up to 200 miles per hour. Each neuron cell is also designed to house miles of information without being overloaded. This subject is about the completeness of the design to replicate in computer's performance. Nerve system organizes information so thoroughly and acts like "electro-chemical processor" (Chan & Petrie, 1998).
However brain's feature differs from computers'. Brain develops, and the development process nearly inescapable, depending on the stimulus and exercises the brain receives. Chan & Petrie (1998) wrote, human brain improved and gained increased skills after the individual experiences incidents for learning in his/her life. The brain capability pattern is directly formed with this special condition, and also expands or "challenged," as the individual is trained intensively by sequences of commands and actions.
The development stage may be augmented or inhibited by special circumstances. Human performance does not merely set as the intelligence, without psychological influence. In fact, human thinks and feels as an integration of processes that happen in the brain. Human's way of thinking is the result of combination between nature and nurture. Personality may affect analytical thinking performance and vice versa.
Brain works well and may perform even better in a stimulating environment, for example within invigorating environment, enough support and resources to help conducting the thinking process, with appropriate music that enhances emotion and motivation, enough combination of stimulation to different aspects, such as visual, auditory, or kinesthetic manner, along with the learning strategy respecting the personal style. Without those elements, brainwork could be performing less qualified.
B. Can Machine Now Duplicate Human Thought Processes?
For simple reasoning and computing process, machine can substitute human as the technology advances. This means, such machine has authority to conduct mathematical process and carry out multiple projects in seconds.
IBM had developed a magnificent entry in 2000, which they claimed as the supercomputer. The computer, called the ASCI White (Advanced Strategic Computing Initiative White) was designed for multiple operation management and able to handle 12.3 trillion operations every second (IBM Announces Latest Supercomputer, 2000). The representative of the company, Nicholas D'Onofrio said that after series of researches to replicate brain capacity, finally IBM materialized ASCI White with comparison between mouse brains to real human's brain.
The company emphasized that they had solid concept, beneath the obstacles to make the real picture of artificial intelligence, but it surely took time and resources to come close to the expected result. IBM might have come to the right lane to accomplish the mission and they declared they would be able to build it step-by-step. They had started with a computer that won the machine-human chess match battle in 1997, the Deep Blue, which had defeated grandmaster Gary Kasparov in the test, ASCI Blue Pacific, with 3.87 trillion operations a second, almost two years ago, and planned to fulfill the funding agreement to increase computing performance to 10 trillions of operations per second, in the future. This means, the breakthrough had come to an understanding with Moore Law, a basic computing principle. Moore expected, "computer power will double every 12 months to 18 months," the company claimed.
With such breathtaking features, ASCI project required great deal of materials and human resources to create, operate, and maintain the system. The hardware itself necessitated a location about 9,920 square feet or as large as two basketball courts, while the…[continue]
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