Chaffee, Kevin. "Baroque sights, sounds at the gallery." The Washington Times,
The National Gallery of Art set up a spectacular exhibit of the Baroque period that included scale models of baroque-era churches, palaces, military forts and grand public buildings. They had problems getting nearly 300 guests through the enormous exhibit. The huge exhibit took up the length of two entire corridors on the main and ground floors of the West Building. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8134619
Baroque in Art and Architecture." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.
This encyclopedia article outlines the emphasis of the baroque period on painting, sculpture, and architecture. The article explains how painters and sculptors from the baroque era expanded on the naturalistic tradition reestablished during the Renaissance and often combined different materials within a single work to simulate each other. Dividing the baroque period into the early baroque period (1590-1625), high baroque (1625-1660) period and late baroque period (1660-1725), this article explains the importance of each period to the baroque era.
Baroque: Origins of the term and concept." The Grove Dictionary of Art Online.
Oxford University Press, Accessed [15 December 2003])
This article asserts that our understanding of the term "baroque" has an important bearing on our understanding of the period, however, it also addresses the ambiguity that has followed the term. For example, to see Baroque as merely a reaction against Renaissance is not entirely right. For the sake of better understanding the Baroque era, this article defines baroque art as partly eclectic and partly naturalistic and traces the origins of this meaning back to the beginning of the 17th century.
Baroque Painting." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
Columbia University Press, 2003. http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/ent/A0856853.html
This encyclopedia article informs the reader of the characteristics that defined baroque painting that expanded on the naturalistic tradition and was reestablished during the Renaissance. The Baroque period was characterized by paintings of still life, as well as genre scenes by artists like Claude Lorrain, Jacob van Ruisdael, Willem Kalf, and Jan Vermeer. The text also asserts that painters like Caravaggio were significant to the era for their contributions naturalistic artwork of "unidealized, ordinary people." Baroque painting was characterized by the manipulation of color for its emotional effects. The article gives examples of this type of manipulation as well.
Bent, Geoffrey. "Bernini: Sould of an Age." The North American Review (1999):
68. University of Iowa.
Geoffrey Bent boldly claims that "only the Romans had a greater influence on Rome than artist Gianlorenzo Bernini. In this article, Bent studies the Baroque sculpture of Bernini and its influence and impact on Rome in the early 17th century. During his lifetime, Bernini was assigned the care of public fountains and even the Papal Throne from eight different popes. Bent outlines the qualities that made Bernini such a famous sculptor, including his palpable virtuosity and the fact that he was the "greatest storyteller in stone" - he made everything appear so real, building each figure around a single "dramatically potent" gesture. For example, in Pluto Abducting Prosperina, Bernini constructs the two figures like a Y, separating as the struggle rises, "with Pluto all assertive muscle and Propseria resisting softness." Bent gives other examples of this characteristic in Bernini's work as well. Bent also applauds Bernini's ability to heighten sensuality and passion through his work, making him, as Bent suggests, "nothing less than the soul of his age."
Characteristics of the Baroque style." The Grove Dictionary of Art Online.
Oxford University Press, Accessed [15 December 2003])
Baroque, the characteristic style of the 17th and 18th centuries, is most observed by appearances rather than essences. In this article, we learn about the dramatic, realistic illusionism of the baroque style. We learn about the expression of unity on baroque styles, as well as the ability of baroque art to raise a person's awareness from a sensory level to a spiritual level.
This text addresses these issues in the work of Rembrandt, Van Dyck and Bernini.
Divisions of the Baroque Period." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
Columbia University Press, 2003. http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/ent/A0856856.html
This encyclopedia article divides the Baroque period into three distinct time frames and explains each period, including the major contributors to Baroque art in each era. It also addresses the spread of baroque from Europe to the New World.
Earls, Irene. Baroque Art: A topical dictionary. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood
This topical dictionary assists those interested in the topics used by artists during the 17th century (Baroque history). The book is a reference source for identifying and understanding the art of Italy and northern Europe during the 1600s. The information it contains is pretty basic information on a variety of subjects, including painting, sculpture, and decorative arts. It is a reference source for background information, vocabulary and the identification of iconographic inclusions. Each topic is internally cross-referenced. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=61542818
Hauser, Arnold. "Chapter 5: Renaissance, Mannerism, Baroque." The Social
History of Art. Trans. Stanley Godman. New York: Knopf, 1952.
In chapter 5 of his book, The Social History of Art, Arnold Hauser addresses the interpretation and evaluation of the Baroque as it is understood today. Hauser credits much of this work to Woelfflin and Riegl, whose established categories of the Baroque period are applications of the concepts of the impressionism of art in the 17th century. Hauser also criticizes Woelfflin for neglecting the classicism of the 17th century and overestimating the importance of subjectivism in Baroque art. After he criticizes Woelfflin, Hauser goes on to explain the errancy of, what he feels is the modern understanding of Baroque art.
Hibbard, Howard. Caravaggio. New York: Westview Press, 1983.
Howard Hibbard claims that Caravaggio "is the most arresting European painter of the years around 1600" and the "most important Italian painter of the entire seventeenth century " - the era known as the Baroque era. Hibbard uses this text as a means to back up this claim. By following Caravaggio from his earliest works like Peeling a Pear and Boy Bitten by a Lizard to his religious works, such as Repentant Magdalen, Sacrifice of Abraham, the Crucifixion of St. Peter, and Doubting Thomas, Hibbard gives the reader insight into the creation of such masterpieces, as well as Caravaggio's inspiration. Hibbard follows the life of Caravaggio through his death and addresses how Caravaggio's work speaks to each of us personally. Hibbard also includes illustrations of much of Caravaggio's art.
Huyghe, Rene ed. Larousse Encyclopedia of Renaissance and Baroque Art. New York:Prometheus Press, 1964.
This encyclopedia serves as a comprehensive tool for understanding Renaissance and Baroque art. As far as the Baroque period is concerned, this text highlights the different periods of the baroque era, major contributors of painting, architecture, and sculpture, as well as how baroque art emerged out of societal values and what the implications of such art had on society as a whole.
Ingersoll, Richard. "The Triumph of the Baroque. (exhibition The Triumph of the Baroque: Architecture in Eurpoe 1600-1750)" Architecture 89 i5 (2000):102.
In this article in Architecture magazine, Richard Ingersoll defines baroque as a term used by Enlightenment critics during the late 18th century to suggest and architectural tendency that seemed to be decoratively embarrassing - architecture characterized by its multiplication of columns and pilasters, frames within frames, swirling cartouches, and undulating elevations. However, Ingersoll asserts that Baroque architecture was "inclusive, pluralistic, permissive, and sensualist." In this article, Ingersoll focuses on the exhibition "The Triumph of the Baroque," highlighting the exhibition's theatrical effects, oblique views, scale shifts, and dramatic lighting - all qualities that define the art of the Baroque era. He also addresses the political and social implications of such architecture, painting and sculpture.
Kleiner, Fred S., Christin J. Mamiya and Richard G. Tansey. Gardner's Art
Through TheAges 11th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing, July 2000.
Art Through the Ages chronicles the history of art from the earliest known cave paintings to postmodern architecture. It also includes most major artists, works, and styles of art in between. It is a text of art-historical study of the entire world that introduces the reader to certain phases of art, architecture, painting, sculpture, and the minor arts from the glacial age in Europe to civilizations of the Near East, Europe, America, and the Orient, to our modern day.
Life and Work of Michelangelo Mensi de Caravaggio: Rome, 1599-1606: Years of success and fame." The Grove Dictionary of Art Online. (Oxford University Press, Accessed [15 December 2003])
This encyclopedia article focuses on the years from 1599 to 1606, when Caravaggio experienced the most fame. This fame came with a variety of works, including the Calling of St. Matthew and the Martyrdom of St. Matthew, which were painted on the side walls of the Contarelli Chapel in Rome. The article addresses the emotive combination that was fundamental to Caravaggio's art - realistic figures combined with chiaroscuro. The article also talks about how Caravaggio's intuitive grasp of dramatic form" made his art so popular, as well as how he used lighting in his artwork to make it appear more three…
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