Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1 essay

Download this essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from essay:

Breast Cancer

How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

Director of the National Cancer Institute

How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

Many environmental factors can affect a person's risk of breast cancer, but they are not the only issues to consider. Genetics also play a strong role in whether a person develops breast cancer or avoids it. A strong family history of the disease can predispose a person to breast cancer, but it is not a guarantee that the person will acquire the disease. Conversely, people with no family history have also contracted breast cancer, so genetics are not the only issue. They are merely a part of the puzzle. The research here indicates that genetics may be a larger part of the puzzle than first thought, however, and proposes recommendations to spend more time and financial resources on discovering the significance of genes and how they influence breast cancer. Recommendations for action include more funding to isolate specific gene markers that may be linked to breast cancer, and further research into how these genes work with other genes to produce the disease in specific patients.

Introduction

Research into the link between genetics and breast cancer has indicated that specific genes may be at fault when it comes to whether a person contracts the disease or avoids it. Although there are other factors, it is this gene research on which this paper will focus. Because genetics, unlike environmental factors, cannot be controlled or changed, those who are most likely to contract breast cancer through genetic issues are those who are most at risk and unable to control that risk. To that end, there are recommendations to be made. These include:

Further research into the relationship between genes and breast cancer.

Isolating the specific genes that cause breast cancer and determining how they work in conjunction with others to produce breast cancer.

Funding for genetic testing for those who may be at the highest risk for breast cancer.

Funding for the issue of genes and breast cancer, in order to save more lives every year.

Review of the Literature

DNA Repair

Reviewing the literature on this issue is vital. It is here that research that has been conducted by others can be examined and cited to show what is being discovered regarding the APE1 gene and breast cancer. It is believed that there is a strong genetic susceptibility to environmental diseases, including cancer, that can be used to determine why one person develops breast cancer and another does not. Many patients who have breast cancer have surgery, but there are also radiation and chemotherapy options to consider, both of which can have serious side effects (Chang-Claude, et al., 4803). Finding a way to stop breast cancer and also to determine who is most susceptible to it can help individuals prepare for what medical interventions they may need in the future. Currently, the strongest and most significant areas of research focus on polymorphisms in DNA (Harms, 74).

This research has indicated that repair genes are a vital component of the equation when determining susceptibility in breast cancer patients because of their capacity to repair DNA, which is critical for preventing cancer and protecting the genome (Harms, 74). Zhao, et al. studied the breast cancer and genetics link in order to determine if it was specific to any particular population. Their findings were based on the understanding that it has long been believed there is a mix of genetic and environmental factors at play when it comes to the development of breast cancer (Zhao, et al.). Genetic abnormalities in the genes can result in being much more susceptible to breast cancer (Zhao, et al.). However, it is not actually that the gene abnormalities cause the cancer, but that the genes are unable to properly repair the damage that is done to the DNA by other factors, which makes the person more likely to contract a malignancy (Zhao, et al.).

The systems that work to repair human DNA play a highly significant role when it comes to the protection of the genome from harm through environmental and endogenous factors (Wood, et al.). The genetic variations that are seen in DNA repair genes cause the DNA repair function to be altered (Wu, 1). This results in DNA damage that continues to accumulate, and when enough damage has occurred there is cell apoptosis (unregulated growth) which can develop into cancer (Wu, 1). It is possible for cell growth to occur without the presence of cancer, but the damage to the DNA is also a contributing factor (Wu, 1). There are specific variations in both DNA damage and repair that have been closely linked to the susceptibility of breast cancer in an individual (Wu, 1). This highlights the importance of the damage and repair issues as they relate to DNA when it comes to whether a person will develop breast cancer (Wu, 1).

There are some DNA repair systems that are more significant than others when it comes to the risk of breast cancer, such as the base excision repair (BER). It is one of the main pathways that is responsible for repairing single strand breaks and base damage in DNA, and has been associated with a risk of cancer (Wu, 1). In other words, if the BER is not working correctly, it is more likely that DNA will not be able to be repaired properly. That will lead to a higher risk for cancer to develop, but will not necessarily indicate that a person will definitely get cancer (Wu, 1).

In the BER process, there is a rate limiting enzyme -- the APE1 gene -- that is responsible for repairing DNA and protecting against both exogenous and endogenous agents (Wu, 1). When the APE1 gene fails or does not work correctly through a mutation or other problem, there is less protection and fewer repairs made to the DNA (Wu, 1). That can lead to the growth and development of breast cancer. Because APE1 is such an important protein for DNA repair in the BER pathway, it initiates repair of single strand breaks in the DNA through phosphodiesterase (Kang, 97). The genetic polymorphisms that occur in genes that facilitate DNA repair influence how susceptible a person is to a number of cancers (Goode, 2002; Smith, 2003; cited in Kang, 97).

There have been a number of epidemiological studies that have shown a link between genetic polymorphisms in APE1 and a higher risk of cancer (Cao, 2011; Gu, 2009; cited in Kang, 97). Additionally, Poletto, et al. used the APE1 gene to study acetylation in specimens of triple negative breast cancer (pg. 37). Cao, et al. also studied the Asian population, with a specific focus on the Chinese (pg. 863). The goal was to determine whether that group had a larger risk of abnormal APE1 genes or whether being Asian was not a risk factor or marker for that particular abnormality. Notably, it is not only Cao, et al. who studied Chinese individuals and their cancer risk based on the APE1 gene. While Cao, et al. studied this gene in relation to renal cell carcinoma, Kang, et al. studied the gene in specific relation to breast cancer. During that study, Kang, et al. discovered a correlation between the APE1 gene and the development of breast cancer in the Chinese population (pg. 98).

APE1 1349 T>G polymorphism

Gu (2009) used a meta-analysis and reported that the APE1 1349 T>G polymorphism was a low risk factor for the development of cancer (Kang, 99). That experiment indicated that G. allele could be a risk for some types of cancer, but not for breast, lung, or bladder cancer (Gu, 510). A number of studies have been conducted to look at the association APE1 T1349G polymorphism and cancer in various countries, but there have been only inconclusive results (Gu, 510). Gu's (2009) meta-analysis, though, is suggestive of the idea that the APE1 T1349G polymorphism could be a contributing factor to genetic susceptibility for cancer.

More studies will need to be conducted, since not all agree. For example, a study done by Zhou indicated that APE1 1349 T>G polymorphism was not seen in the increased risk of cancer from the standpoint of genetic susceptibility (Kang, 99). Other studies have shown that there is no significant association between the APE1 1349 T>G polymorphism and cancer of the breast (Kang, 99). That has been reported in many studies, as the results have been consistent with regard to the APE1 1349 T>G polymorphism and how it is not likely to be a factor when it comes to breast cancer susceptibility (Kang, 99).

APE1 -656 T>G polymorphism

At this point, there is still a lack of studies that clearly investigate the role of -656 T>G polymorphism as it relates to breast cancer (Kang, 100). There are variants of genotypes that have been associated with lower lung cancer risk, and these studies have shown that the -656 G. allele had transcriptional activity that was much higher than the APE1 -656 T. allele…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Neo-Confucianism Is A Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1" (2014, February 15) Retrieved December 4, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/breast-cancer-182825

"Neo-Confucianism Is A Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1" 15 February 2014. Web.4 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/breast-cancer-182825>

"Neo-Confucianism Is A Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1", 15 February 2014, Accessed.4 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/breast-cancer-182825

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Neo Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

    Memory, Identity, And Body In a hypothetical situation, Barack Obama and Miley Cyrus are both involved in a horrific accident. As a result they are both horribly injured and only one can live. They undergo an operation wherein the parts of the brain that support specific episodic memories, but only those specific parts, are transferred. The body of Miley is given the brain pieces of Obama and the body of Barack

  • Neo Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

    Aristotle began as the student of Plato, but a reader is hard pressed to find any particular similarities between the worldviews of the two. In fact, if we have studied Platonic Dualism and Plato's accompanying Theory of Forms, it starts to look like Aristotle's philosophy is based upon the attempt to be as un-Platonic as possible. Plato believed in a double nature of reality -- the real physical world that

  • Neo Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

    Toulmin Model and Sherlock Holmes The Toulmin Model of argumentation asserts that a good argument consists of six parts which intend to develop a practical argument. The first element is the "claim," or the conclusion that the argument must establish. The next part is the "data," or the facts and evidence collected and used to confirm the argument. In order to support the data, general, hypothetical, or logical statements are used,

  • Neo Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

    Validity in psychological research involves a thoroughness and precision when drafting a research study, truly considering all the strengths and weaknesses of the study before engaging in it, and how previous studies have failed before. "Validity is important because it tells you if the measure actually measures what it's supposed to measure and not something else (Goodwin, 2010). When structuring and executing a given psychological study, one needs to take

  • Neo Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

    The presentation of propaganda is one of the ways political agendas are advanced using the educational system. Historically, educational systems are used to teach ideas that are often scientifically false. An example of this would be the teaching of the inferiority of blacks as a way to shape the argument on race relations during the slavery period. A more recent example of that practice would be the attempt to change

  • Neo Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

    K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Paradigms in the 21st Century This is not your grandfathers' economy or his educational paradigm however; today's curriculum still appears as such and therein lays a very significant and challenging problem that presents to today's educators and leaders. According to Sir Ken Robinson, "We have a system of education that is modeled on the interest of industrialism and in the image of it. Schools are still

  • Neo Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

    Sources: Hallahan, D., Keogh, B. (2001). Research and Global Perspective in Learning Disabilities. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum. Jacobson, J., et al. (2004). Controversial Therapies for Developmental Disabilities. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum. Satterwhite, M. (2008). Access to Academies for All Students: Critical Approaches to Inclusive Curriculum, Instruction and Policy. Journal of Thought. 43 (1-2): 45-53. Part 2 - In many ways, the IEP meeting has a great deal in common with arbitration: the goal is to


Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved