Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Child Sex Tourism
Consent in human trafficking
Bias in the application of police discretion
Failure to identify the victim in human trafficking
Push and Pull Factors
What theories explain trafficking in India
Measures to control
Investigations / Prosecutions
India is regarded as the one of the source, transit, and a destination country for the bonded labor and child sex trafficking. The ranking of the country has been Tier 2 W. since 2005 and stayed constant until the 2010. In the year 2011 and 2012 the ranking is Tier 2. The ranking system reflects the compliance ranking of the Trafficking Victim Protection Act (TVPA) standards in the country. The tier one reflects complete compliance with the standards. However the tier two is regarding the countries that are not complying completely with the TVPA but making significant progress in terms of their implementation. The tier 2 W. denoted that the country is not completely complying with the Act however making a significant progress and is one the watch list for compliance with the absolute number of victims. There is a failure to provide evidence for increasing efforts in combating the sever forms of trafficking. The determination that the country is making significant efforts to be in line with the standards requirements and there are future steps defends to overcome the current situation in next years (U.S. Dept. Of State, 2011).
The trafficking in India is related to the internal factors and it is also internal trafficking. The most underdeveloped parts of India are the major targets of traffickers. It is observed that 90% of the trafficking in India takes place within the country and as a result the victims are forced for labor including the debt bondage. Various industries are major contributors of the debt bondage labor including the brick kilns, rice mills, embroidery, and carpet weaving are major areas of bonded labor and forced child labor. The children are also forced to work as domestic servants, beggars, agricultural workers, and other segments of the society. The women are also observed to be given a lump sum amount at the end of three years term for their dowry. The employment agencies in the region are the major contributors in luring men, women, and children against the false employment agreements and using them as sex workers.
Women and girls within the country are trafficked for prostitution. The women of Nepal and Bangladesh are also recently joined by the Uzbekistan, Ukraine, and Russia. The forced marriage agreements for female to mail child sex are also observed in the eastern states of India (Klapper, & Parker, 2011). It is also noticed that the child sex usage in Middle Eastern countries under the temporary marriages has also increased over the last few years. The eastern states are also noticing a major increase in the sex workers along with a spread of the establishments of the sex workers in urban areas from traditional brothels in order to avoid surveillance and monitoring. The willing migratory labor is also observed under the threat of ending up into debt bondage or exported out for slavery in Middle East, Southeast Asia, United States, Europe, and Caribbean.
The government requires to take sever measures for the reduction of forced labor and child trafficking. The country however is found to be doing minimum to achieve the international objectives. There had been lack of constitutional amendments and development of laws concerning the issues. The national and international non-governmental organizations are playing a vital role in providing trainings and improving the current situation. Education is also one of the major concerns in raising awareness and providing necessary rights to the population at large. The country is also facing sever circumstances in terms of food, shelter, education, and awareness for the citizen rights. It is observed that there are as many as 5000 individuals of law enforcement agencies and members of these NGOs got trained. The child labor protection act as well as the related laws for curbing human trafficking is also important. The Ministry of labor and employment, as well as law department provides funding for almost one hundred NGO in order to provide the required protection for trafficking victims. The rescued bonded labor is also increasingly large in number during the year making the mark up to 865 (U.S. Dept. Of State, 2011).
The ministry of child and women protection has allocated a large amount funds $118 million for the protection and rehabilitation of the sex trafficking victims. The Indian government is lacking behind various international standards for child labor protection, adult bonded labor protection, and shelter for the child sex trafficking victims. The government requires maintaining a high degree of involvement as well as a detailed procedure for interstate coordination in order to effectively handle the human trafficking situation within the country. There are various causes of human trafficking. It requires a detailed research and analysis of the situation to develop efficient and effective controls (U.S. Dept. Of State, 2011).
The reasons observed from various research and reports are variant. It has multiple factors including the area, living condition, legal system of the state, as well as the effectiveness of law enforcing agencies. The rackets of human trafficking also adopt various techniques to lure men, women, and children to increase their base for captivating the individuals. It is also observed that the individuals also get attracted to the charming offers due to their economic conditions as well as the lack of education also plays a vital role in developing a favorable condition for the human traffickers. The reasons cited by various NGOs are different. The area conditions and human economic activity is also one of the major reasons facilitating the traffickers. The prevention of the sex trafficking in child as well as other labor related trafficking requires government initiatives. The ministerial meetings and interdepartmental coordination is also required to combat the situation (U.S. Dept. Of State, 2011).
However at the same time the initiatives of preventive convergence-based projects in various states are also notable contribution from the governments. The Indian police and soldiers are also provided training for identifying the trafficking and prostitution. The government has also taken a keen interest in the initiative for creating awareness for the prostitution clients in reducing the demand. The central governed has taken a step forward in developing a nationwide investigation authority for the federal anti-trafficking unit set up in January 2012. The government has also provided funding to the local governments to implement a three years project for anti-human trafficking units within the police department. The units are focused in sex trafficking as well as the labor trafficking. The criminalizing of the sex trafficking victims should also be handled with care. It is observed that various cases of human trafficking include the penalization of the sex victims. It also creates a vacuum for understating the situation of these individuals and their state in which they are being used as a tool for unlawful business of the traffickers.
According to Smith (2010) the unique partners of trafficking in India are related to the operational mechanism of the rackets operating in the field. There are various tools and techniques used to lure the victims. The human traffickers also operate as an employment agency and offer lucrative benefits and employmentopportunities to the victims. They in return offer their services and get trapped in the vicious circle of these traffickers. These traffickers transport them to their desired work including the debt bonding, sex tourism, and forced labor. The groups of human traffickers operate mostly in the rural areas where there is a least level of education and employment opportunities are also scares. The women trafficking are due to the poor economic conditions and the agents of humantrafficking offer lucrative benefits. The children are also kidnaped and treated like animals in the training camps of baggers, sex tourism rackets, and bonded labors.
Recognition of problem in India is also one of the major issues as it has risen during past two years however the country has been facing serious issues in recognition. The awareness in communities livening in remote rural areas was only known to the cases when such things have taken place in their surroundings. The lack of formal education and information network resulted into creating two distinctive worlds within the country. The residents of rural areas are suppressed and least educated hence it is easier for the human trafficking agents to trap these individuals. The Indian government is also responsible for catering the minimal needs of education and controlling human trafficking. The human trafficking issue was given least importance in law making as well as policing for the concern. The government with the assistance from international non-governmental organizations, and United Nations has developed specific laws to handle the human trafficking (Hall, 2011).
The government has started taking serious actions as well as implementing the measures to reduce the human trafficking issues through strategic initiatives. The government has provided training to their personnel as well…[continue]
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