Classical Conditioning the Concept of Term Paper

  • Length: 8 pages
  • Subject: Psychology
  • Type: Term Paper
  • Paper: #55821663

Excerpt from Term Paper :

It is to be stressed upon that such reflexes may exist in some species but not in others. According an effective U.S., however, there are still several factors that have influence on conditioning a particular CS applying it. (Features of Classical Conditioning)

The Classical Conditioning response is considered as most primitive and primary units of learning and assists the analysts in better comprehending and potentially treats some human pathology. The Classical Conditioning initiates to predict about the ways the conditioning is influenced by some pathologies being well settled on a behavioral and neural basis. Really, classical conditioning is better understood and is so similar in animals and humans and it is effective in analyses which attempt to connect human disorders to brain dysfunction. (Classical conditioning could link disorders and brain dysfunction, researchers suggest) Various illustrations of therapies with regard to classical conditioning are as follows. A treatment for enuresis or bed-wetting is developed by Mowere and Mowrer in 1938. The child suffering from this disorder was made to sleep on a pad that was connected to a bell. Wetting the bed results in the completion of the electrical circuit and ringing of bell which is U.S.. This led to awakening of the child - UR. Frequently repeating the incident where in the bed wetting results in awakening of the child by the bell, the child starts to relate the sensation of pressure in his bladder with waking up. Gradually, thus the necessity to urinate will be adequate to awaken the child and enable him to get up and go to bathroom. (Applications of Classical Conditioning)

The concept of Classical Conditioning has also been applied in predation control. Coyotes are felt as a problem to sheep farmers since they like to eat sheep. Killing of the coyotes is possible but this strategy is not seen to be suitable. Rather Gustavson and Gustavson in 1985 analyzed a study in which they attempted to condition some coyotes not to eat the sheep. The used sheep meat - CS and spread it with chemical - U.S. that would result in a stomachache - UR in the coyotes. Soon after the coyotes consume the treated meat, they avoided eating the live sheep gradually - CR. Such humane application of conditioned taste aversion is also applied conveniently to regulate other types of predator also. The Classical conditioning can also be applied to assist people reduce fears. The counter conditioning is associated with pairing stimulus - CS that obtains fear with a stimulus - U.S. that produces positive emotion - UR. To illustrate a person who is threatened of snakes but like to have strawberry ice cream is repeatedly give ice cream only after showing a snake. While he is eating ice cream, the classical conditioning assists him in relating the snake with good feelings. (Applications of Classical Conditioning)

Some research predicts that classical conditioning may be associated with drug tolerance. The repeated taking of drugs for some time necessitates enhancing the dosage to obtain the same impact. To illustrate when a person is administered with repeated doses of morphine to decrease the pain, patients mostly need larger doses. Siegel and Colleagues in 1982 advocates that indications, like the needle applied to administer the drug, produce negative feelings that act against the normal impact of the drug. Seigel also prescribes that in treatment of the drug addiction, it is essential to decrease the positive conditioned responses related to taking the drug. Siegel advocated that drug overdose can result when the drug is consumed in a new location that is deficient of the related symptoms like the familiar furniture in a room. Irrespective of the fact that a lower does of the drug is considered adequate, the individual may require the same amount leading to overdose. The Classical Conditioning is also associated with both in the formation and elimination of the emotional reactions. A list of stimuli in the environment is required to elicit responses is attempted to be maintained. Then after it can conveniently be applied in the principles of classical conditioning to assist in understanding the way of learning the many emotions you experience. (Applications of Classical Conditioning)

The classical conditioning is considered to be a significant element in the real life. It is the most basic element of all kinds of animal training and also included in some sort of human training. Its primary application in human behavior is in addressing the habit formation, either attempting to form good habits like enjoying exercising, liking good-grade or self-esteem rewards of good school performance etc. Or to check the bad habits like smoking, overeating, etc. inclusive of phobias or anxiety generating conditioning. (Behavioral Theory: Part 1: Classical Conditioning) the common illustrations of classical conditioning in everyday life are worth observing. The Classical Conditioning assists in explaining the elementary incidents in life like reaction of a person to a particular song, or smell as well as larger emotional problems like fear and anxiety. The dogs of the Pavlov have explained the reasons that make the cats run to the kitchen merely with a sound of a Can Opener. Similarly, the family dogs realizes that they are going to be taken for a walk by the answer phone being switched on or the owner waking to the leash point. The Classical Conditioning also exemplifies as to why a person may respond in a particular way when a certain song is being played. The studies have indicated that a good or bad experience seems to have developed for that person when the song was playing. (Ivan Pavlov: evolution.massey.ac.nz/)

The Classical Conditioning is also infused in the sphere of entertainment. The most remarkable illustration of this is the novel a Clockwork Orange authored by Anthony Burgess in 1962 and the movie directed by the late Stanley Kubrick. A Clockwise Orange details the activities of a young ultra-violet character named Alex. Alex is alleviated of his evil tendencies through the Classical Conditioning. He is compelled to watch various films indicating ultra-violence - U.S. And the like and his natural feeling of excitement or joy provides as the UR. Additionally, in the sphere of entertainment also classical conditioning is also applied as a marketing tool. The Classical Conditioning is normally applied with low involvement products. This is due to the effectiveness of the Classical Conditioning with involvement of emotions. The ads in respect of low-involvement products are normally attacking the consumer by affective means since none are thinking of buying low involvement products. Advertising and sales promotion are taken to be the most common forms of classical conditioning in marketing. Classical conditioning is applied in several advertisements. The idea inherent in it is very simple. Advertisement - U.S. produces a positive response - UR in the individual who is exposed to the ad. The product or brand within the ad then turns to become the CS. (Applications of Classical Conditioning)

This is essence behind the activities of the TV advertisers affording to pair their products with beautiful scenes or with attractive, sexy, successful or significant people in their effort to force one like their products. Much of what we like or dislike is taken to be the consequence of classical conditioning. To illustrate take the case of drinking coffee. It is quite astonishing to visualize as to the reasons behind many people being habituated to things that naturally taste bad. The taste of coffee initially is awful. However, many people take it regularly. The taste of cigarettes is terrible. Similar is the case with alcohol. Moreover, the taste of fingernails and the filth under the nails is not considered good. However, many college students are observed biting their nails. It is quite fascinating to learn to like these things. Mostly, these are through classical conditioning. (Introduction to Learning: Classical conditioning)

The case of a young psychologist who learnt to like coffee is worth describing. The psychologist was alone in a clinic without any other psychologist to assist him. Feeling the necessity of talking to somebody else other than the patients he initiated to take coffee break with the attractive secretaries. The coffee began to taste better while he was finding pleasure to be with the secretaries and enjoyed their meeting. It is worth observing the reasons behind disliking his secretaries rather than liking coffee. This would have been occurred had the awful taste is stronger rather than his social needs. He would have curtailed taking the breaks if none of his needs were being met. Irrespective of the fact that he was aware of what he originally liked and needed was socializing with attractive women, and not coffee. But after a period of time he is forced to take a cup of coffee in the morning. He has learned to like that. In such instance the coffee is observed to have paired with satisfaction…

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