Cloning Charles Darwin Believed That All Organisms Term Paper

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Cloning

Charles Darwin believed that all organisms, including human beings, evolved from a single life form (Darwin 1982) and that each organism's traits varied and passed on from parent to offspring in an accidental, environmental and non-determined way called natural selection. He believed that such traits depended more on environmental than sexual factors and that these traits passed on if they were better suited for survival and successful reproduction. Through this process, he viewed that original or "maladaptive" traits progressively disappeared as descendants replaced those unfit to survive, thus the selective advantage of traits that could suit environment change. Darwin's theory of evolution was and has been the most widely accepted explanation among many.

But German Fuhrer Adolph Hitler believed that nature should not be allowed to proceed aimlessly (1996) but that a particular human stock, called the Aryan race, should be protected from infiltration by inferior strains (Mein Kampf 1933). He pointed to the contamination of the once-pure blood of the Aryans as the cause of the decay and fall of great civilizations in history and that only this race deserved to be cultivated and protected and had the right to endure (Hitler). His mad idea was the basis for the abominable Holocaust, which temporarily passed out with the termination of the regime.

But the duplication of the first sheep, Dolly, through the new technology, called cloning, in 1999 strongly hinted that human beings could and would be cloned next in another mad man's attempt to realize Hitler's dream. Even then, the market for human clones appeared broad and attractive, especially of human parts would be frozen and cloned only after a lapse years from the donor's death (Dixon 1995) to avoid moral, social and legal complications. What was a nightmare years back could be the precise solution to incurable diseases, injuries and defects that modern science has only imperfectly handled.

More and more parents are taking the option to clone their offspring in guaranteeing that their child would have the desirable level of intelligence, freedom or immunity from genetic disorder, and other disabilities, which they would otherwise inherit through the wayward process of natural selection. Because of its novelty and Hitler's scare, the new technology is not getting understood as it should be. Genetic engineering is tomorrow's science today and genetic engineers assure worrying sectors that cloning human beings would not entail technical difficulties, as Dolly's experiment success demonstrated in 1996. Whatever difficulties that stand on the way of evolving science in seeking out answers to questions and solutions to newly evolving problems, all trends point in the direction of cloning.

Cloning is most tempting in the field of body transplants, although many people may still feel some objection to it for moral reasons. But defects, accidents and disease continue to point in that clear direction and modern research sustains it. When a particular body organ is transplanted a new body or environment, the cells in the cloned part would begin to recognize their new environment and become more specialized (Dixon). Parents with a history of kidney defects or ailments could decide to submit the mother's fertilized egg for treatment in a laboratory and have it develop into a perfect, kidney disease-free body. One way is to collect aborted fetuses in a container and to surgically take from them organs and tissues for transplanting to those who need them.

Hospitals and clinics, especially abortion clinics, can be contacted or tied-in for these fetuses, for a worthy cause.

One thing to remember about obtaining and transplanting spare body parts for defective or severed parts is that transplants can succeed only if these are available at the precise time of the accident or surgery (Dixon) and if these "replacements" work after attachment or transplant. Many people succumb to kidney, heart or other organ failure because replacements are unavailable at that precise time. The needed organ or tissue must be attached to the diseased or severed part instantaneously and two surgical teams are needed to perform the exchange between two persons - the donor and the recipient - in two adjacent operating rooms (Dixon). Many attempts of this kind fail despite the utmost care when the donated organ dies from loss of circulation or contamination before being attached to the new body (Dixon). Live kidney…[continue]

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