College Males Tend to Objectify Term Paper

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g., Emmers-Sommer et al., 2005).


Several studies support the contention that catecholamines create more violent and less sensitive reactions to the opposite sex, acting like hormones or neurotransmitters in the system; common catecholamines are epinephrine, nonepinephrine, and dopamine. Zuckerman and Litle (1986) found that men scored higher than women on scales of curiosity about sexual and morbid events in media in a study of the related variables between sensation seeking and morbid and sexual events. High sensation seekers, most of whom are men, are "interested in stimuli that increase activity in central catecholamine systems. Zuckerman and Litle's work showed a connection between exposure to media that involve violence, fear-inducement, and eroticism and an increased peripheral catecholamine activity" (Levi, 1969).

Researchers used the Rape Myth Acceptance scale (RMA) (Burt, 1981) the RMA is a 10-item, 1-7 likert scale (1=strongly agree, 7=strongly disagree) measure that provides statements about rape-related attitudes, beliefs, and the propensity to blame the victim for the perpetrator's actions. Such items as "Any healthy woman can successfully resist a rapist if she really wants to" and "In the majority of rapes, the victim is promiscuous or has a bad reputation" (p. 223) are found. "Past reliability of the scale has been reported as Cronbach's alpha=0.875" (Burt, 1980).


Research has shown that during the college years, both men and women can buy into the rape myth acceptance (Allen et al., 1995) and that on the college campus, desensitization can occur for both genders due to repeated exposure (Goleman, 1985). Thus, individuals who are frequently exposed to frequent cultural and sociological pressures and sexually violent material are likely to learn and abide by such negative behaviors and also to accept the violent treatment women receive as justified. Furthermore, individuals who view sexually violent media might be more willing to accept rape myths (Emmers-Sommer 11). All of these elements are present on the college campus and must be found to have some effect on the attitude of men's objectification of women while there.

Works Cited

Allen, M., & D'Alessio, D. "Comparing male and female physiological responses to pornography: A preliminary meta-analysis." Paper presented at the Organization for the Study of Communication, Language, and Gender conference. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Oct 1991.

Balbus, Isaac D. Marxism and Domination: A Neo-Hegelian, Feminist, Psychoanalytic Theory of Sexual, Political and Technological Liberation. Princeton University Press. 1983.

Burt, M. "Cultural myths and supports for rape." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980. 38, 217-230.

Burt, M., & Albin, R. "Rape myths, rape definitions, and probability of conviction." Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 1981. 11, 212-230.

Check, J.V.; and Malamuth, N.M. "Sex role stereotyping and reactions to depictions of stranger vs. acquaintance rape." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1983.45, 344-356.

Emmers-Sommer, Tara M.; Pauley, Perry; Hanzal, Alesia; Triplett, Laura. "Love, suspense, sex, and violence: men's and women's film predilections, exposure to sexually violent media, and their relationship to rape myth acceptance." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Sept. 2006.

Forbes, Gordon B.; Adams-Curtis, Leah E.; and White, Kay B. "First- and Second-Generation Measures of Sexism, Rape Myths and Related Beliefs, and Hostility Toward Women: Their Interrelationships and Association with College Students' Experiences with Dating Aggression and Sexual Coercion" Violence Against Women, Vol. 10. Mar 2004; pp. 236-261.

Forbes, Gordon B.; Adams-Curtis, Leah E.; Pakalka, Alexis H.; and White, Kay B. "Dating Aggression, Sexual Coercion, and Aggression-Supporting Attitudes Among College Men as a Function of Participation in Aggressive High School Sports." Violence Against Women, Vol 12(5), 441-455. 2006.

Giddens, Anthony. A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism: Vol. 1, Power, Property and the State. Macmillan. 1990.

Gillen, Meghan M. And Lefkowitz, Eva S. "ender role development and body image among male and female first year college students" Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Jul 2006.

Goleman, D. "Violence against women in films." Response to the Victimization of Women and Children, 1985. 8, 21-22.

Itzin, Catherine; Taket, Ann; and Kelly, Liz. "The evidence of harm to adults relating to exposure to extreme pornographic material." Ministry of Justice. 28 Sep 2007.

Lanis, K., & Covell, K. "Images of women in advertisements: Effects on attitudes related to sexual aggression." Sex Roles, 1995. 32, 639-649.

Levi, L. "Sympatho-adrenomedullary activity, diuresis, and emotional reactions during visual sexual stimulation in human females and males." Psychosomatic Medicine, 1969. 31, 251-268.

Malamuth, N.M., & Check, J. "The effects of mass media exposure on acceptance of violence against women: A field experiment." Journal of Research in Personality, 1981. 15, 436-446.

Mazurek, Terri. "Bibliography on pornography and men's violence against women." Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse. 30 Mar 1999.

Padgett, V.R.; Brislin-Slutz, J.; and Neal, J.A. "Pornography, erotica, and attitudes toward women: The effects of repeated exposure." The Journal of Sex Research, 26(4), 1989. pp. 479-491.

Schwartz, Martin D. And DeKeseredy, Walter S. Sexual Assault on the College Campus: The Role of Male Peer Support. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA:, 1997, 229 pp.

VAWPP. "Six things you can do to prevent violence against women." Women's Center, University of…[continue]

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