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According to the United States Department of Justice's Community Oriented Policing Services Website, "Community policing is a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime." Community policing is defined in similar ways throughout local police departments, although there are enough differences to make the concept of community policing difficult to pinpoint. Partnership and cooperation are the primary features of community policing, as are the goals of reducing crime through prevention and long-term public safety strategies. The Department of Justice's three main components of community policing include community partnerships, organizational transformation, and problem solving. Each of these components will ensure a successful implementation of a community policing program.
One of the drawbacks to community policing is its nebulous and ambiguous interpretation by different police departments. The Lincoln Police Department of Lincoln, Nebraska, for example, calls community policing "the most misunderstood and frequently abused theme in police management." Community policing has been called a fad, a trend, and a buzzword (Friedmann, 1996). Because of this, some departments have taken shortcuts, only "paying lip service" to community policing (Friedmann, 1996). The Lincoln Police Department (n.d.) also admits that "all manner of organizational tinkering" has been mislabeled as community policing.
Beyond this, however, there are real pitfalls with community policing programs that should be taken into consideration when contemplating any organizational changes. For one, community policing is "not simply equivalent with foot patrol," which can take place without "building relationships with the community," (Friedmann, 1996). The idea that community policing is simply "foot patrol" had been a part of the early literature on the effectiveness of community policing, but is no longer relevant (Triojanowicz & Pollard, 1986). In fact, foot patrolling without relationship building is useless. Building relationships with the community is the heart of community policing.
Second, community policing does require long-term dedication and commitment. Each department and its managers must be prepared to thoroughly implement a community policing strategy, which could entail genuine changes to the organizational culture and its policing strategies. Organizational commitment from all levels of management, and from every member of the force -- as well as community commitment -- is necessary. Community policing often requires partnerships with community organizations, community leaders, and other government institutions, as well as with residents.
The history of community policing is in fact, the history of organized policing in general. The first formal policing organizations were developed in London with the reforms made by Sir Robert Peel in the nineteenth century. Prior to Peel and his model of patrol, policing was a loose and often lawless mission. Policing was not a social institution as it is today. Peel's point-of-view was rooted in the principles of community policing: patrolling and participating with the public in crime prevention. Centralized management and organized bureaucracy also ensure the integrity of policing and its officers.
Community policing models fell out of favor as the bureaucracy started to grow towards a "professional" model in which community involvement was deemed "unnecessary," (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 1994, p. 6). Distancing themselves from the community proved disastrous to police officers. Corruption became widespread, and public mistrust of the force grew to such proportions that crime prevention became difficult. Thus, a reversion to Peel's original theories and methods has led to the current interpretations and implementations of community policing. Community policing can therefore be viewed more like a paradigm, theory, and value system than it is a set of practices. The Lincoln Police Department (n.d.) defines community policing as "a value system which permeates a police department, in which the primary organizational goal is working cooperatively with individual citizens, groups of citizens, and both public and private organizations to identify and resolve issues which potentially effect the livability of specific neighborhoods, areas, or the city as a whole."
There are some practices that provide the backbone for successful community policing programs, though. Community policing centers are one of the hubs of the community policing paradigm. At community policing centers, the public has an opportunity to interact with the officers and vice-versa, in ways that are not possible in the formal "professional" bureaucratic stations. Citizens' Crime Watch and similar programs are also helpful in engaging the community about individual roles and responsibilities for preventing crime (Vancouver Police Department, n.d.). Community policing can be viewed as a strategy…[continue]
Community Policing According to the U.S. Department of Justice is a "philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime" (cited in www.cops.usdog.gov). From the community's perspective, it means that the policy and organizations within the community form partnerships to increase the effectiveness
Community Policing Efficacy The Violent Crime Control & Law Enforcement Act of 1994 heralded the beginning of a massive effort to reform policing strategies in the United States, in part through implementation of community-policing programs at the local level. Congress has allocated billions of federal dollars over the years since to support such efforts and by the end of the 20th century, close to 90% of all police departments serving communities
Ellison distinguishes middle and upper-class neighborhood communities and suggests that middle-class neighborhoods are the most receptive to collaborative association with police agencies, while upper class neighborhoods tend to rally together in the immediate aftermath of specific criminal activity that affects the community, but are less likely to maintain a sustained community-police collaboration after the specific crime concern is resolved. Nolan refers indirectly to the same issue in characterizing different neighborhood
According to Rohe and his colleagues, though, "Over time, however, there has been a tendency for departments to expand their programs to involve a larger number of officers and to cover wider geographic areas. Besides these special units, a number of police departments also expect all of their officers to embrace the principles of community policing and to undertake at least some community problem-solving activities" (Rohe et al., 1996,
Therefore, any war waged on a terrorist group then becomes a war to protect the personal liberties of those who can not do so themselves. However, the United States itself has not even been able to stand up to the standards of liberated individual rights. Within the context of the most recent foreign soil wars, American soldiers in a military base have proven that the nation itself is unable to
Community policing is a strategy that requires both new attitudes and commitments from citizens and new attitudes and commitments from police officers. It builds on the basic practices of policing by emphasizing cooperation between the police department and the citizenry, by emphasizing the prevention of crimes as opposed to just catching perpetrators, and by developing long-term solutions to existing and potential problems in the community (U.S. Department of Justice [DOJ],
Another interesting statistic is that youth belonging to gangs commit the greatest percentage of violent crime among the youth, with a figure as high as 89% of serious violent crimes by gang members reported for Denver, where only 14% of the youth population belonged to gangs. This is an issue that should be seriously addressed in Macom. In terms of ethnic minorities, the statistics are far less conclusive than those
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"Community Policing According To The United States", 29 November 2012, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/community-policing-according-to-the-united-83321