Developing Space Vehicles for Future Space Tourism
Today, certain individuals in the developing countries could be viewing "space tourism" as vocabulary. Nonetheless, in the developed countries, this term is turning to be more familiar and gradually becoming a holiday experience for world Forbes. This is an expensive venture that is exciting, stunning, adventurous, and relatively remains the least exploited phenomena in the world history. Since the first "space tour" in 2001, the rich stamps their foot on a fact that wherever they can go, the poor cannot manage to go, and what the poor can do, they can do best. Over the past few decades, the general perception about space tourism has been changing yearly. History reveals that this perception considered space tourism as a "science fiction." However, this term currently gains recognition and is becoming the most important grand target for the growing space industry. Such developments have been in compliance with the supportive space tourism study programs within a range of countries. This leads to the development of a scenario that receives a mutual consensus among the space industry (Ashford, 1984). Supposing some $18 billion of funding could be available to each space tourism company, the commercial passenger space travel services to and from the Earth's orbit could develop rapidly in order to meet the growing demand for the space tourism. For instance, at a growth rate of approximately 150,000 passengers per year, the space tourism companies could probably hit a minimum of 750,000 passengers per year by 2020s, at approximate prices 30,000 per passenger.
Not until the late 20th century, humans' dreams of travelling to above the earth turned to be a reality (Ashford, 1984). However, due to their determinations, humans still carry out research, which targets the testing and enhancement of new technological methods of making the outer space highly susceptible and accessible to everyone. This technology is becoming much closer to refinement and almost readily available to the developed countries. Unsurprisingly, just in the past decade, individual billionaires such as Paul Allen of Microsoft and Mr. Richard Branson; the managing director of Virgin Atlantic among other few individuals began to view themselves to be fortunate by privately propelling themselves to the space. According to Ashford (1984), in the near future, many people will be capable of launching into the outer space minus the assistance or selection by a NASA astronaut.
There are several challenges facing the space industry. Several companies face difficulties in developing vehicles, which can take people into the space just in a fraction the currently prevailing prices due to the high cost of production and maintenance. For instance, space travel tickets cost somewhere between 95 to 200 thousand dollars for a single flight. With the growing contemporary technologies, there is an expectation that these costs should drop to approximately 20 thousand dollars or bellow in the near future. This will make the space flights more accessible to people, including those with medium income levels, offering them a chance to excite the weightless venture out into the space just as the rich people do. This paper thereby serves to champion for changes towards the betterment of future space vehicles and space travel. Chief in this subject is the development newfangled space vehicles for an enhanced future travels. Many scholars argue that one of the best ways of solving a problem is by ignoring it. However, in this context, Bono (1973) argues that the best way to solve problems related to space innovations is by understanding the challenges and taking appropriate actions towards a relevant solution. The development of space vehicles is not only a viable venture, but also an honorable accomplishment that earns space companies a great reputation. It does not only involve the necessity and development of space vehicles, but also regarded as unavoidable undertaking.
The new Demands for Space Travel
Muller (2008) reveals that the first tourist to enjoy a trip into the international space station was a multi-millionaire known as Tito Dennis who spent approximately 20 million dollars for his space trip in 2001. Dennis traveled on board a Russian Soyuz capsule, launched by an American company known as Space Adventures, Ltd. After 2001, a number of other wealthy clients traveled in space trips. However, cost of flight still remains so much high, making the space tourism mainstream extremely expensive to date.
Currently, there is a wide understanding regarding the growth of human activities into the space. These activities are critically dependent on the costs of space travel and/or transportation that strongly draws its foundation from the rates of traffic. Furthermore, the escalating demand for space launches arise due to the demand for meteorology, satellite communications, scientific research, surveillance, and space tourism. Nevertheless, the worldwide demand for an increased rate of launches (approximately 100 launches per year) are considered sufficient enough to justify the development costs of a completely re-usable launch vehicle (Bono, 1973). This is necessary because the industry, as well as their customers (space travelers), expect the costs to reduce substantially lower than the current cost that is approximately $10,000 per kilogram.
One of the potential uses for space flights, which directly arise from the widely popular space interest is the space tourism. This involves taking short trips of pleasure into the Low Earth Orbit by civilian or members of the public. However, the industry considers this potential use in little depths. The major reason for ignoring the space tourism has been due to the high cost of space travel. The potential demand for the space tourism thereby clings to the fact that it could turn out to be top revenue earning activity supposing the space launch vehicles and space stations could sufficiently reduce their price charges. The rapidly growing space technology predicts that, in the near future, there will be a reduction in the cost of space holidays due to the affordability of prices in significant proportions to the demand population. By this, the space tourism and the entire space industry will flourish and provide a high traffic rate for transportation to and from the low earth orbit (Ashford, 1984). As a result, the space development industries will be capable of justifying the commercial improvements in low cost launch of space vehicles and advanced infrastructure, which in turn will lead to daily exploitation of the entire space in related space applications.
Despite a considerable public interest in space adventure, there exists a very narrow range of public appreciation about the diverse activities that are entertaining and interesting within the orbiting facilities. Nonetheless, the prospective demand for space holidays continuously increase every year. For instance, a recent opinion poll conducted for the American Express Company within the United Kingdom reveals that over 50% of the rich population comprising people under the age of 45, and approximately 65% of those under 25 years would prefer space holidays. This scenario elicits that in the near future, if not all then about 90% of the rich, as well as the medium level earners, will be travelling to the space over their holidays. Similarly, the United Kingdom would not be an exceptional in this context.
A range of unique leisure activities are possible within the low earth orbit depending on their costs of provision. Upon their return, space travelers report unique observations from aerial low earth orbit and terrestrial phenomena from aperture within the earth orbit even after some hours. Man-powered flights utilize fabric wings attached to the arms and tails connected to the ankles will be conceivable in low gravity. In relations to this developing manufacturing technology, a number of contemporary sports, recreational activities and leisure would appropriately exploit the possibility in the low earth orbit. Similarly, the cylindrical chamber that slowly rotates would enable space travelers to swim under low gravitational forces, and fly within the central space.
Various configurations envisaged to meet the requirements of space vehicle design may involve the new technology in order to pilot the process. These include designing the vehicle for effective horizontal take-off, and horizontal landing using the existing technology on rocket engine manufacturing on the orbiter. Alternatively, it could involve a combination of rocket engine and turbojet engine on the booster in order to come up with an advanced vehicle known as "Space-bus," which can perform a primary function of carrying passengers (fare-paying). The space bus has got a large booster stage, supersonic plane, with double take-off weight as that of Concord. Turbojet engines are to facilitate a smooth and swift take-off, fly-back, acceleration to Mach 3-4, and landing. As well, other four rocket engines of HM6O or J2S installed in the aft fuselage are useful during the take-off performance. These engines provide spurt to the speed separation of Mach 6, which occurs during the top semi-ballistic climb towards an altitude in which the dynamic pressure is extremely low thereby reducing both heating loads on the booster and air loads on the orbiter. The orbiter stage comprises of a conventional jet fuselage of 40-passengers capacity.…