Diabetes Self-Care This Research Study Term Paper

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Individuals are asked to work toward those goals and values they hold while experience their thoughts and positive feelings." (Gregg et al., 2007) ACT is stated to have "shown positive outcomes for a wide variety of conditions including for chronic medical conditions, even when presented in very brief form." (Gregg, et al., 2007) Gregg et al. additionally states: "Diabetes researchers have called for the development of interventions designed to reduce diabetes-related distress in order to increase adherence with medical regimens (Melkus et al., 2003).Given this, there may be practical advantages to acceptance, mindfulness, and values-based action as a method of dealing with the psychological challenges of this chronic disease. Diabetes carries a substantial risk of disability and death, and it is reasonable for a person to respond to such threats with fear, worry, sadness, and avoidance. It can be invalidating and disempowering not to address these difficult thoughts and feelings." (Gregg, et al., 2007) the patient is required, in these psychological approaches which require a focus such as this to "sort through which thoughts and feelings are rational or irrational, excessive or expected. This sort process might actually increase self-focus and make nonavoidant effective actions difficult. Acceptance and mindfulness provides a generally applicable and relatively easy alternative to this dilemma, especially when combined with values-based action." (Gregg, et al., 2007) Gregg et al. state that their study shows "that it is possible to impact these coping strategies quickly through a psychoeducational intervention, providing an alternative to existing approaches that emphasize the role of control of emotions and thoughts in the maintenance of good self-management behaviors." (Gregg, et al., 2007)

The work of Oster et al. (2006) entitled: "Differences in Self-Management Behaviors and Use of Preventive Services among Diabetes Management Enrollees by Race and Ethnicity" review the assessment of "the degree that managed care organization (MCO)enrollees used preventive services and engaged in diabetes self-management behaviors by race/ethnicity." (Oster, et al., 2006) the assessment was conducted through self-administered surveys of 19,483 eligible enrollees. Thirty-three of the 40 survey questions "were exact or slightly modified Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS (questions)." (Oster, et al., 2006) Results of these questionnaires shown that Black and Hispanic respondents "reported more diabetes-related health visits in the past year than did whites. White respondents reported receiving more of the recommended preventive services. Blacks had significantly lower utilization of five of the eight preventive services measured compared to whites, and Hispanics had significantly lower utilization of seven of the eight preventive services." (Oster, et al., 2006) Oster et al. states that: "With regard to self-management behaviors, blacks were significantly less like than whites to monitor their diets, exercise regularly and not smoke, while Hispanics and whites differed only in regard to diet monitoring. There was no racial or ethnic variation in the likelihood of performing daily glucose checks." (Oster, et al., 2006) This study states conclusions that significant differences exist in the use of preventive services by race/ethnicity. (Oster, et al., 2006; paraphrased)

The work of Burns and Skelly entitled: "African-American Women with Type 2 Diabetes: Meeting the Daily Challenges of Self-Care" reports a study conducted with the purpose of describing the experience of living with type 2 diabetes in a sample of African-American women. This study reports a "convenience sample of nine (9) women" who were recruited through referral from physician offices in taped interviews. The mean age of participants in this study is stated to be fifty-seven years of age. This study concludes that all participants stated a concern for limb amputation possibility and that education concerning diabetes self-management "most often occurred at initial diagnosis in the form of pamphlets and instructions to cut back on certain foods. However, no instructions were given on how to cut back. Only one of the participants had an exercise plan. In addition, they did not feel that the health care providers had time to talk with them about their diabetes." (Burns and Skelly, (2005)

The work of Utz et al. (2006) entitled: "Working Hard With it: Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes by Rural African-Americans" reports a study with the specific aims stated to be to provide a description of the "experience of self-managing type 2 diabetes among rural dwelling African-Americans, to identify facilitators and barriers to self-management, to describe the use of prescribed and alternative therapies, and to elicit recommendations for programs of diabetes care." (Utz, et al., 2006) This study was conducted through ten focus groups in three rural communities with men and women separated into groups "with facilitators matched by race and gender." (Utz, et al., 2006) Group sessions are stated to have been tape-recorded and transcribed with field notes taken as well. Data analyses were conducted through use of Folio Views software and then went under review by a multidisciplinary team. The specific aims were: (1) identification of facilitators and barriers to type 2 diabetes self-management among African-Americans living in rural communities; (2) to make determination of prescribed therapies and alternative therapies use; and (3) elicitation of recommendations for programs of diabetes care from participants. Stated as the program's long-term goal is the development and testing of interventions found to be effective in promotion of self-management of type 2 diabetes among African-Americans living in rural areas. Emerging in this study was identification of barriers specific to rural areas such as "inability to find diabetes specialists and lack of diabetes education programs being offered within reasonable distance." (Utz, et al., 2006) it is stated that: "Costs of care are problematic for all those with chronic illnesses, and this factor was strongly emphasized by many participants in this study who live in rural areas with high rates of poverty." (Utz, et al., 2006) Strengths noted in rural communities included: "seeking support from health professionals and the use of close-knit networks among kinfolk, friends, and church groups often seen in rural communities. Individual coping techniques, prayer and writing down problems are also examples of resilience and strength among many of the participants learning to live with diabetes." (Utz, et al., 2006) While it is not possible to generalize the results of this study due to the nature of qualitative research, insights were garnered from this study due to the emergence of commons themes. Conclusion of this study state: "Addressing health disparities such as the high incidence of type 2 diabetes among people of color requires that healthcare providers tailor care to the lives and understandings of their patients. Results of this study reinforce the importance of offering diabetes education that is culturally tailored to recipients. Unique life experiences of African-Americans in rural areas require diabetes education and support consistent with those needs." (Utz, et al., 2006)

The work of Wdowik, et al. entitled: "Expanded Health Belief Model Predicts Diabetes Self-Management in College Students" reports a cross-sectional, exploratory study to determine factors predicting diabetes self-management. The purposes of this study are stated to be: (1) to develop an attitude and self-care assessment instrument based on the variables in the EHBM and targeted to college students with Type 1 diabetes; (2) establish content validity of construct as well as test-retest and internal consistency reliability; and (3) identify attitudes and other characteristics of college students who successfully manage their diabetes. (Wdowik, 2001) Findings of the study state that "attitude constructs most predictive of good diabetes management behaviors included Intervention and Health Importance, whereas barriers to achieving appropriate outcomes were identified as Situational Factors and Emotional Response. Thus, even if students with positive attitudes and good intentions may be unable to engage in desired self-care behavior if significant barriers or negative emotions are present." (Wdowik, 2001) Additionally stated in the study's conclusions are that "two attitude constructs were found to be highly predictive of regular exercise: Intention and Emotional Response. High intentions to engage in recommended self-care behaviors were predictive of frequency of exercise. Similarly, other studies have found Intention to be closely related to behavior." (Wdowik, 2001)

The work of Williams and Bond entitled: "The Roles of Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectancies and Social Support in the Self-Care Behaviors of Diabetics" reports a study in which "adult diabetics completed a questionnaire containing measures of diabetes-related self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, social support and diabetes self-care. Self-efficacy was consistently associated with self-care in the areas of diet, exercise and blood glucose testing. Outcome expectancies were correlated with exercise and blood glucose testing. The relationship between self-efficacy and blood glucose testing was moderated by outcome expectancies, such that self-efficacy had a greater effect when combined with strong beliefs in outcomes. At low levels of self-efficacy strong outcome beliefs were associated with poorer self-care. Social support was associated with exercise self-care, and diet-specific positive family interactions were associated with better diet adherence. The relationship between social support and exercise self-care was mediated by self-efficacy. When the effects of self-efficacy were controlled, social support was no longer a significant independent predictor of self-care. The results of this study suggest that programs designed to increase confidence in self-care abilities are likely…[continue]

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