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Diversity and Child Abuse Prevention
Diversity and How Child Abuse in Handled in New York Compared to Other Countries
There is developing debate regarding the suitable combination of programs and polices needed to react to concerns of child abuse and neglect. Child neglect and abuse hold significant effects for prospective health and mental health of a child. As a result, it is imperative to comprehend connections among different forms of maltreatment, family and child factors and connect with the systems for children welfare. The child abuse prevention programs and polices adopted in the New York State are generic and appears to be meant for the majority in the society. The programs are not cultural specific and hence, cannot benefit the minority group in the society. For instance, the Asian immigrants present an increased rate of child abuse. However, according to the Asian culture, worldviews, values and perspectives, suffering is an inevitable element of life. In this view, Asian-American cannot therefore, benefit from a universal child abuse protection programs and policies used in the state. The minority and the poor communities in the society disproportionally experience the effects of ineffective child abuse prevention programs. More children get corporeal and poignant injuries leaving more families torn asunder and more children placed in juvenile detention or foster care while more adults face imprisonment for avertable actions. Although child maltreatment is a grim and pervasive social problem, the prevention of this problem is not feasible given the diverse nature of most countries and the lack of cultural specific "child abuse" prevention programs and policies.
Child abuse has been in art, science and literature in various parts of the world. Reports of mutilation, infanticide, abandonment, and other types of violence against children date back to the primordial civilizations. The historical accounts holds reports of weak, malnourished, unkempt children cast out of their families to fend for themselves. Moreover, the historical accounts hold record of sexually abused children (Normam, 2012). Charitable groups and other people concerned with the well-being of children, and who support the protection of children assist abused children. Professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, doctors, authorities and other social workers help the abused children in the society. Nevertheless, different countries have their own distinct ways of handling child abuse through different systems to protect children from different types of maltreatment, helping families to get accustomed to healthier parenting and punishing those involved in child abuse.
Child abuse is a great global problem with staid impacts on a child mental and physical health, well-being and growth through out a child's life (Normam, 2012). Child abuse refers to the emotional and physical mistreatment, neglect, sexual abuse and other exploitative ways for commercial gains. Children abuse encompasses four distinct type of maltreatment, which includes:
Child abuse is an unsympathetic predicament that holds the potential to cause injurious effects on a child (Chan, 2012). In the contemporary world, most children face brutal beatings, sexual cruelty, and abandonment while others get killed by their parents, relations or other citizens taking responsibility of then. All these types of child maltreatment are evidenced through the media, which frequently underscores plentiful stories regarding children facing anguish from their parents, relations and caregivers.
Apparently, there is a great deal of uncertainty regarding estimates of severity and frequency of child abuse in the world. Violence against children remains largely reported and hidden because of stigma, fear as well as societal acceptance of this form of violence. The prevalence of reported child sexual abuse differs by 2% to sixty two percent globally (Higgins, 2004). Child abuse violates the most fundamental rights of children and adolescents enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. All people below eighteen years hold the right to psychological and physical integrity as well as protection from all kinds of violence. Article 19 of the CRC (Convention on the Rights of the Child) passed by the UN in 1989 encourages stages to tall all suitable administrative, legislative, educational and social measures to defend children from all sorts of mental and physical violence, abuse or injury, negligent treatment or neglect, exploitation and maltreatment entailing sexual abuse. The United Nations International Committee on the Rights of the Child stressed the significance of member nations prohibiting all types of physical punishments and degrading children treatment.
Nevertheless, it is apparent that children for divergent cultural and social reasons suffer violence, in their homes, at work, schools and in legal child protection systems and in the community (Higgins, 2004). In this regard, children get maltreatment in the places and spaces that should provide them with affection, protection, development motivation, promotion of rights and shelter (Normam, 2012). One of the key factors that makes children highly vulnerable is lack of sovereignty given their young age and subsequent increased level of economic, social and emotional dependency on institutions or adults (Normam, 2012). These aspects make it difficult for children to stop or prevent abuse, request assistance or report the condition to the authorities.
Violence refers to the intentional utilization of physical power or force through threat or act against oneself, a group of people or another person, which leads or holds substantial likelihood of causing death, injuries, development disruptions, deprivations or psychological harm (Gilbert et al., 2009). Similarly, child abuse refers to the omissions or acts carried out with the main intention of causing immediate harm to the child victim. The abusers perceive the harm inflicted as the final objective of their activities (Chan, 2012). Neglect, emotional, physical and psychological harm, which are all forms of child abuse, leads to long-term emotional and physical injuries, demise or other grim harm. From this prospect, child abuse is a pubic health and social issue that affects not only a child, but also the parents, professionals such as psychologists, guardians, a community and the society. The World Health Organization views child abuse as a public health problem that affects the entire society besides the child victim where more girls are more likely to face child abuse than boys do particularly, sexual abuse.
Records of child abuse date from the ancient times to present (Kieger, 2003). Throughout the history of humankind, people viewed children as their properties. Parents held unlimited powers to do whatever they thought was necessary with their children. Particularly, fathers were responsible for disciplining their children. Young children especially those with developmental incapacities suffered neglectful and abusive treatment. People subjected such children to cultural practices that in the modern world are inhumane. In Ancient times, fathers held the power to kill, maim, sell or sacrifice their children, and children held no privileges or rights including right to live (Kieger, 2003). Children born with deformities experienced severe child abuse particularly in Rome while roman fathers would declare a child unsuitable to live. Sexual exploitation within the domestic atmosphere existed notwithstanding common taboos (Normam, 2012). Historical, parents used their children for their own gains where children became slaves. During industrialization, children were put in workhouses, factories, mines farms, orphanages, apprenticeships and placement mills. For instance, in England, children would work for sixteen hours daily in factories. By 1830, there were approximately 56, 000 children aged between 10 and 13 years working in textiles where children comprised of 20% of workforce in textile industries (Myers, 2008). Between 1870 and 1930, approximately eight thousand children from London and Dublin streets went by ship to Canada by ship to work in factories and on farms. Children also worked in other industrial enterprises particularly, metals, mining, pottery and machinery. Conditions in textile industries and other industries aroused the sentiment of the pubic against child labor (Myers, 2008).
According to Krieger (2003), child abuse started in as early as 1800s. During this period, several persons and institutions that included criminal justice systems, social work, public health, philanthropy and medical institutions tried to investigate and increase public awareness regarding issues of family violence (Kieger, 2003). The scientific and public attention to the issue waned and waxed in concert with the wider societal concerns. In the 17th century, child neglect and infanticide were prevalent in Europe. Children received teaching relating to obedience to their elders, and deviations from the expected conduct in school, at home, at work resulted in severe physical and emotional punishment (Gilbert et al., 2009). Children as young as six years served their families and a good parent was one who was strict in discipline. In America, until the late 19th Century, people viewed a child as instinctively sinful, but potentially redeemable via determined and constant efforts of his/her parents presumably by discipline that the modern world views it as abusive. This belief was highly resistant to change given its foundation on the traditional right of the family to control its internal affairs (Kieger, 2003). Therefore, other institutions were reluctant to interfere with the activities of a family. By the last half of the nineteenth century, the only agency that was willing and capable of intervening in apparent cases of child mistreatment was the…[continue]
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