The first auto engine was invented in 1886 by Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler. Tracing the history of the origin and development of engines, we see that the crucial role in the creation of the car engine played a gasoline internal combustion engine, which remains to this day, a source of power to the vast majority of engines. Analysis of the ways of development of automobile engines is not only interesting from a historical point-of-view but it is a striking illustration of a very productive and relatively rapid improvement of internal combustion engines with respect to those requirements of road transport. Very often, it takes years, even decades, before a more perfect principle or the most rational design application in production. The design of automobile engines, their creation, improvement and mass production for a wide variety of operating conditions, carried out over a period of more than 70 years to serve as material for the production of an evaluation criterion of excellence engines of technological development. Especially, the opportunity to use automotive experience, outline the prospects for the development of the design with a sufficient degree of certainty, based on extensive data accumulated as a result of construction and the use of more than two million cars built around the world to date.
The four stroke internal combustion engine or petrol engine was first invented by Nikolaus August Otto in 1876 (Moyer, 2009). After that, other inventors developed both a small and fast engine. The first modern automobile was introduced by Daimler and Benz in 1886. With major improvements from time to time, various other companies have played a key role in the development of the petrol engines. It is through their efforts that the first single cylinder engine has gone on to become ultra system, especially for cars.
Petrol engines are commonly used in light and heavy machinery.
Because of its high power and low weight, it is also used in mobile equipments.
Petrol engines are mostly used in vehicles including cars, jeeps, trucks, boats, ships, bikes, locomotives and aircrafts.
It is also used in gas turbines and electric generators.
Mechanism of Four Stroke Petrol Engine
At the beginning, the piston is at top dead center. The intake valve is open and the piston movement creates a vacuum within the combustion chamber as it reaches the bottom dead center. The vacuum created by the piston at this time, causes the fuel-air mixture sent by the carburetor to the intake manifold from entering the combustion chamber of the cylinder through the intake valve open.
Once the piston reaches (BDC) bottom dead center, camshaft, that rotates with the crankshaft and which has remained open until the moment the inlet valve to allow the fuel-air mixture entering the cylinder closes. At that very moment the piston starts to rise compressing the air-fuel mixture that is inside the cylinder. The cylinder reaches top dead center again and the air-fuel mixture has reached the maximum compression, jump an electric spark in the spark plug tip that ignites the mixture and makes it explodes. The force of the explosion forces the piston down sharply and the rectilinear motion is transmitted through the connecting rod to the crankshaft, which is converted into rotary motion and useful work. The piston, which is now back in the PMI occurred after the time of explosion, begins to rise. The cam shaft, which is kept rotating with the crankshaft at that time open the exhaust valve and the gas accumulated within the cylinder, produced by the explosion, are entrained by the upward movement of the piston, pass through the valve and out into the atmosphere through a hose connected to the exhaust manifold. Thus completes the four-stroke engine, which continues to take place without interruption in each of the cylinders, until it stops the operation of the motor.
Petrol engines are totally dependent on availability and production of crude oil. The prices of crude oil fluctuates globally and the economic conditions of supplying countries also fluctuates which affect the users of petrol engines.
The evolution of hybrid engines comes from 19th and 20th century. In 1899, an employee of Jacob Lohner & Co makes its first design of a hybrid engine car, an electric motor and gasoline. His name was Ferdinand Porsche. His design consisted of a petrol engine rotating at constant speed, powering a dynamo to charge electric batteries. In addition, the gasoline engine start was made?
by the same dynamo. As a result of technological advancements in traditional petrol and diesel engines, the attractiveness of hybrid engine vanished. But, after two decades, manufacturers worked to minimize production costs to make these vehicles attractive. Companies invested more to minimize emissions and consumption of fuel. Finally, the first hybrid car to be sold was a great success. Toyota Prius, the vehicle went to the market in 1997. With millions of models sold worldwide; Toyota described the car as a "clean family car."
Various car manufacturing companies are using different types of hybrids technology to manufacture environmental friendly cars.
Hybrid diesel engines are commonly used in hybrid trains and road transport in various countries.
Hybrid technology is used in two wheel vehicles such as electric bicycle and scooters.
It is also used in light and heavy machinery.
Because of its low emission and fuel consumption, countries are investing in hybrid technology and encouraging their citizens to use hybrid vehicles.
Hybrid technology is also used in cranes, ships, aircrafts, electric generators and military vehicles.
Hybrid cars use an electric motor and an internal combustion. Hybrid cars can be series or parallel. In the series type of hybrid, the generator is driven by engine that supplies electricity to an electric motor which is linked to the wheels, the vehicle is moving with the power finally supplies the electric motor, which uses energy produces electric generator driven by the internal combustion engine (Choi & Inha, 2010). In parallel hybrid vehicles, both the electric motor and the gas are connected to the vehicle wheels. They are more complex, but also more effective in order to reduce consumption and emissions without compromising performance. For city traffic, where it takes a lot of power and looking for a zero emissions, the vehicle runs on electric motor that draws current from the batteries installed in the car. These batteries can be recharged through a power outlet when the car is stationary, or by the generator coupled to the internal combustion engine when it is running. The force that reaches the wheels comes from electric motor, but is powered by electricity producing generator and combustion engine. To get more features and autonomy, the vehicle uses the power of the electric motor and the gasoline engine at a time.
Hybrid vehicles depend a lot on the power generated by the batteries. The consumer need to change the battery after a completing certain miles. However, an average hybrid vehicle can give 100,000 miles which is quite reasonable. Like conventional engine, hybrid also depends on availability of fuel.
Most studies argued that the first functional electric car was released on August 31, 1894, result of joint work of Henry Morris and Pedro Salom. Other sources support the theory that the first pure electric vehicle was built by Robert Anderson between 1832. However, the first electric engine vehicle went commercial in 1852. But these early models do not use rechargeable electric battery. In 1859, rechargeable lead acid battery was introduced by Gaston Plante and Camille Faure's that allows the electric car to have a success never equaled in this century. Camille Jenatzy beat the speed record in 1899, exceeding the 100 km / h, and in 1900 a fleet…