Administration which relates to issues such as security, rules during work, holidays and vacations, office layout and services and personal record. Lastly human resources section is shouldered with the responsibility of industrial and labour relations which looks in to issues such as collective bargaining, grievance procedures and presentation of elections.
2.2 Challenges facing Human Resources
According to Duncan (2005), "The identification close to eight areas which pose great challenge to the hotel industry including the five star hotels"; these are employment which includes increase in minimum wage, increasing flexibility of working hours, over dependence of foreign expatriates, employee training. As mentioned by Kim and Oh (2994), the issue of taxation that is in some cases high increases the rates of value added tax on the industry thus discouraging tourism. Environmental factors do also pose a challenge in the hotel sector for instance the banning of smoking in public places as well as compliance on acts that promote equal employment (non discrimination). Another problem that faces human resources in trying to offer quality services is increasing change in demand of service requirement of customers and at the same time there is difficulty in acquiring of qualified employees of high morale Creswell (2003).
Financial constrains as well as the unwillingness of hotel management to put their employees under training and development is another problem that hinders the quest to offer quality service in hotel industry. Other factors that are to an extent beyond human resource department may include over infrastructure of the city where the hotel is situated. According to Glenda and Peter (2000), "Infrastructure for such as roads, airstrips and airports need to be expanded to ease traffic problem if cannot be undertaken by the government will compromise service delivery of five star hotels." Recruiting and maintaining quality staff exists as a serious challenge to the hotel industry as they can be easily lured to other hotels that offer better remuneration as well as better working environment. Thus very high employees turn over exist. Controlling labour cost is another problem in the hospitality industry and its getting more complicated to handle.
2.3 Typical organization of Human Resources section
Personnel Research and Development officer
Maintaining pay role
Training Aid and Equipment
2.4. Service Profit Chain
Employee's in the five star hotels plays a major role on determining of the profitability of the services which the hotels offer. "Service employees are key input for delivering service excellence and productivity, both of which can be important sources of competitive advantage" (Wirtz et al., 2008: 4). Service quality is achieved by implementation of assessment in job design, work place design, select appropriate employees, and recognize high performers and tools of serving customers. Therefore, control of these inputs will ensure that services offered are of high quality. For quality services to be achieved, the employees should be satisfied. Once they are satisfied, their productivity increases and most of them are retained by the hotels for long.
The service profit chain illustrates on how services which are offered by the employees contributes to profitability of the hotels. According to Milbourn Jr. And Haight (1998: 15), "there is ample evidence that the economic success of companies, fluctuates with the quality of service that is offered."
However, success could only be achieved by ensuring that customers are satisfied which is attained by implementation of external service value. Service value ensures that services offered satisfy the customers; these translates to customer loyalty by retaining them, come for repeat business and they are very instrumental in providing referrals to potential customers. Such loyalty of the customers contributes to increased profitability and revenue growth. The diagram below illustrates service-Profit Chain
Source: Operating Strategy and Service Delivery System (2008)
3.0 Research Methodology
What are the human resources role behind five stars hotels service quality is the main question that the study seek to address as well as the challenges they face in trying to deliver quality services and products. According to Hui and Nita (2008),"The research will also put forward recommendations that will help human resources in quality service delivery." [No page numbers available-client needs to locate them]. Secondary data will be used to collect the required information. Both qualitative and quantitative research methodology will be used in carrying out this research. Data will be analyzed and presented by using graphs charts and tables where appropriate.
3.1 Research Design/approach
Both qualitative and quantitative research approaches will be used during the study, as this will enable the research to be broad and cover all the requirements of the research topic and ensure that correct inferences are made.
3.2 Data collection
Data for this study would primarily come from secondary sources. In addition to Internet sources, we shall also be examining hospitality industry magazines and reliable financial literature to get adequate information on how the role of human resource management has had a positive or negative impact on five-star hotels. For this, we need to collect financial information of various five-star hotels, notably the ones with much developed human resource departments, and we shall compare it with their previous financial performance as well as compare it to financial information of other hotels with weak HRM. The required data in this research will be collected exclusively from using secondary data sources. As mentioned by Chauhan (2009), this will be done by reading materials from the relevant internet sources as well as text books and other relevant materials concerning the research topic. This report will be using both qualitative and quantitative data. To be in a position to comprehend the role of human resources behind delivery of quality services and products, secondary data will be vital. in-depth interview will also be carried out to supplement the secondary sources of data.
3.3 Data analysis and presentation
After collecting the required data, proper statistical analysis will be carried out to help bring out coherent meaning of the study. Non-parametric statistic will be employed to achieve this. Presentation after the analysis will be done by use of tables, graphs as well as charts.
3.4 Limitation and scope of the study
The research will have a global scope highlighting the factors that hinder expansion of hotel industries and development in the same business sector. The research anticipates the following limitations; Limitation in Time: the time given for the research may not be sufficient. The investigator also anticipates that targeted interviewee might have very tight schedule hence posing more challenge to the short time given to carry out the research.
As mention by Nankervis (1993), "Legal restrictions, such as: rule and regulations in the hotels may prevent dispatch of certain vital information that the researcher requires, as such rule only restrict information to be available to specific individuals or government organs" [No page numbers available-client needs to locate them]. Some materials which are vital to offer information are not accessible since the writers have blocked them. it's also anticipated that over-reliance on secondary data can mislead in trying to come up with recommendations. Financial constraints: The research is an extensive one and involves use of funds in huge amounts. Due to the fact that the researcher not funded, it is expected to face financial constraints; the investigator will counter by choice of economically affordable involvements.
Obtain Aims & Objective
Review Methodology used
Prioritize on Findings Recommended
Chauhan, J. 2009. Introduction to Hotel Industry. Internet.
Creswell, W. 2003. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method
Approaches Thousand Oaks, Sage publication.
Doane, D & Sloat, D. 2005. The Customer Service Activity Book: 50 Activities for Inspiring Exceptional Service. New York. Amacom Duncan, T. 2005. Current Issues in Global Hospitality Industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research.
Enz, a & Siguaw, a. 2000. Best practices in Service Quality. Cornel Htel and Restaurant Administration Quartery, 41(1) pp. 48-61
Enz, a & Siguaw, a. 2000. Best Practices in Service Quality. Cornel Htel and Restaurant Administration Quartery, 41(5) pp. 20-29
Glenda, F & Peter, H 2000. Human Resources, Service Quality and Performance; a
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Hoque, K. 1999. Human Resources Management in the Hotel Industry: Strategy. London, Rooutledge
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Kim, B & Oh, H. 2004. How Do Hotel Firms Obtain a Competitive Advantage?
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Milbourn Jr., G. And Haight, T. (1998) Quality Service Makes Happy Customers and Greater Profits. Business Forum.…