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To empathize will not even require a person to understand the reason why some people feel that way, or feel different. Empathizing, as a component of emotional intelligence, is just mere knowing and/or being aware of how they feel and nothing more (Anderson, 1985).
The fifth and last component of emotional intelligence deals with handling relationships. This component is parallel to the management of various emotions to others, socialization, and handling conflicts and difficult issues (http://students.cup.edu/dup2093/components.htm,2006). With such aspect of relationship-handling, this component of social intelligence clearly suggests a cognitive portion of human being. To successfully and efficiently handle relationships, one needs to know what kind of relationship he/she is looking for and what type of personality he/she has as compared to the type of personality of the other people he/she wants to meet, befriend, work with, etc. This is of course a task of analyzing (Omdahl, 1995). There should be an analysis of oneself and of the others. There should be an analysis of what one needs and wants in oppose to what others need and want.
Programs/Models Established Related to Emotional intelligence
Several models of emotional intelligence have emerged in recent years. As indicated previously, in one model Goleman (1995) includes a blend of several characteristics. Included are: (a) knowing one's emotions, (b) managing emotions, - motivating oneself, (d) recognizing emotions in others, and (e) handling relationships. Goleman suggested that a wide array of specific qualities such as impulse control, persistence, empathy, good moods, hope, and optimism are subsumed within these broader components and are characteristic of emotionally intelligent individuals. As a whole, Goleman conceived emotional intelligence to be "a master aptitude, a capacity that profoundly affects all other abilities, either facilitating or interfering with them" (p. 80). This statement reflects his belief that emotional intelligence is extremely powerful in how well people perform in life.
Similar to Goleman (1995), Bar-On (1997) includes a wide range of social and personality characteristics in his model of emotional intelligence (e.g., intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, adaptability, stress-management, general mood). Also like Goleman, Bar-On agreed that emotional intelligence has predictive ability, specifically suggesting that it can help optimize academic potential and life success. In this second model of emotional intelligence, Bar-On went one step beyond Goleman and developed instruments to measure these components, the BarOn EQ-i (Bar-On, 1997) and the BarOn EQ-i-Youth Version (Bar-On & Parker, 2000).
Goleman (1995) and Bar-On (1997) have theorized that emotional intelligence is highly related to a variety of social, behavioral, and academic benefits. In actuality, however, only a limited amount of empirical evidence exists indicating that emotional intelligence contributes to any form of successful living.
The results of three recent studies have provided some indication of the predictive nature of emotional intelligence in adolescents. Utilizing a group of 52 junior high school students from an urban setting, Rubin (1999) found that high MEIS -- A emotional intelligence scores were inversely related to aggression. Likewise, Trinidad and Johnson (2002) found that higher emotional intelligence scores (also utilizing the MEIS-A) were related to lower admissions of smoking and alcohol use in a group of high school students. In a third study that utilized the MEIS-A, with a small pilot study sample of gifted adolescents (N = 11), Mayer (2001) suggested that emotional intelligence was seemingly related to the ability to organize emotions that can occur in peer relationships. Whether emotional intelligence predicted success per se in each of these studies is debatable. There is growing evidence, however, that emotional intelligence is related to positive behavioral and social outcomes.
In one additional study completed during the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) validation process (Wechsler, 2003), the BarOn EQ-i-Youth Version (BarOn & Parker, 2000) was utilized along with the WISC-IV and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test -- Second Edition (WIAT-II) in a clear attempt to predict a more traditional form of success-academic achievement. Each instrument was administered to a group of 141 students from a variety of backgrounds, all between the ages of 11 and 17. When controlling for the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), a multiple regression analysis revealed that the BarOn Total EQ did not add significantly to knowledge of WIAT-II total academic achievement. Certain BarOn subscales (Intrapersonal, Stress Management, General Mood, Positive Impression) did appear to predict achievement beyond the WISC-IV- FSIQ.
Lastly, Obiakor (2001) prescribes a model for fostering emotional intelligence in the classroom. His model can be used in regular and special education programs. It includes schools and the teacher education programs. In the program Obiakor (2001) includes Partnership Programs, Mentorship Programs, Social Skills Programs and Self-Management Programs. These are all integrated in Teacher Preparation Programs. There are Preservice and Inservice Training for Teachers. Partnership Programs are adopted to enhance parental and community involvement. Collaborative relationships encourage the development of cooperative behaviors - to work together and find peaceful solutions for problems. The use of cooperative learning in the classroom teaches students the importance of teamwork. Mentorship programs are important for providing students with positive role models and boosts self-esteem. Social skills programs are important for remediation of inappropriate behaviors. These programs utilize modeling, role-playing and performance feedback.
The New Haven, CT school district administers a comprehensive Social Development program teaching a variety of skills. The curriculum includes social/emotional competencies for each grade level including such items as impulse control, anger management, empathy, recognizing attributes in people, self-monitoring and decision making among others (Mayer, 1997). Another program is called "Self Science" and it is taught by the Nueva School in Hillsborough, CA. This program demonstrates the efficacy of a curriculum that strives to enhance self-awareness, social interaction and problem-solving skills" (Vargo, 1997).
How Can teachers Implement the Use of Emotional intelligence in the Classroom
The theories of Goleman (1995), Gardner (1993), Salovey (1997), and the research of Kagan (1994) all imply the need to address the development of emotional intelligence of students in the classroom. Emotional intelligence can be learned and it is a strong criterion for a person's measure of success. It is coping with anger, addressing life's turmoil and self-efficacy that can predict success and ultimately, a more productive life. Although emotional skills begin in the home with good parent-child interactions sometimes parents are unable to provide this for their children due to their own poor emotional states (Salovey, 1997,). This presents a dilemma for the schools, whether or not they help students in social and emotional skills. Children who present more challenges, despite whatever specific circumstances, should also be given the opportunity for the development of emotional intelligence. The school must administer yet another program to aid the development of the whole child. It is true that teachers are already faced with the challenges of interpreting curriculum, producing student's achievements on standardized tests and managing a class full of students with different academic and emotional needs. Increases in school violence mirror the increasing emotional needs of students. The increasing societal problems of poverty, drugs, disease, sexual and child abuse also impact our students. Dedicated teachers and school districts committed to their students' needs can not ignore these problems. To get these students to their next academic level, it is then suggested that students are met where they are and give them skills and resources to cope with stressors so they will then be better able to attend to academics (De Falco, 1997). Teachers must perform the Herculean task of imparting knowledge, yet keeping all students safe and happy even though their home life might be very different. Traditional teacher education programs do not prepare teachers for the emotional climate of the classroom. A good teacher can not walk into a classroom and ignore the emotional literacy of their students. Academics and emotional literacy go hand in hand.
Works Cited and List of References:
Anderson, J.R. (1985). Cognitive psychology and its implications (2nd ed.). New York: Freeman.
Bar-On, R. (1996, August). The era of the EQ: Defining and assessing emotional intelligence. Poster session presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada.
Bar-On, R. (1997). The emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i): Technical manual. North Tonawanda. NY: Multi-Health Systems.
Bar-On. R., & Parker J.D. (2000). The emotional quotient inventory: Youth version (EQ-i-YV), North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.
Bernet, M. (1996). Emotional Intelligence: Components and Correlates http://somats.com/ei1996.htm
Blanck, G., & Blanck, R. (1994). Ego psychology: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Bond, M. (1992). An empirical study of defensive styles: The defense style questionnaire. In G.E. Vaillant (Ed.), Ego mechanisms of defense: A guide for clinicians and researchers (pp. 127-158). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Bond, M., Gardner, S., Christian, J., & Sigal, J. (1983). Empirical study of self rated defense styles. Archives of General Psychiatry. 40, 333-338.
Bond, M., & Vaillant, J.S. (1986). An empirical study of the relationship between diagnosis and defense style. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 285-288.
Bond, M., & Wesley, S. (1996). Manual for the Defense Style Questionnaire. Montreal, Quebec: McGill University.
Brenner, C. (1973). An elementary…[continue]
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