It highlights administrative roadblocks to program effectiveness. This research is an unbiased report made to the House of Representatives. It clearly demonstrates that much work in needed to from a policy and funding perspective to make the program better in line with its intended purpose.
Neil, M. (2008). New Regulations Threaten Parts of Endangered Species Act. ABA Journal. 12 August 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008 at http://abajournal.com/news/new_regulations_threaten_parts_of_endangered_species_act/
This article highlights a new plan that many limit independent scientific review by the Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service when a listed plant or animal species is threatened by a proposed project. This new proposal is drawing criticism, as it is feared that opinions will not be objective. It is feared that decisions regarding potential violations will be addressed by personnel that are not knowledgeable enough to make correct decisions. This article informs the reader about these new proposals and presents both sides of the issue.
Nilsson, G. (2005). Endangered Species Handbook. Washington Dc.: Animal Welfare Institute. Retrieved 5 December 2008 at http://www.endangeredspecieshandbook.org/chapters.php
This online book presents the history and issues involved in the Endangered Species Act in nonprofessional's language. It is intended for use by teachers in the classroom who wish to include lesson on endangered species. It addressed a number of biomes, including forest, grasslands, aquatic ecosystems, and Madagascar. It addresses legal, economic, and environmental issues surrounding the act. It uses a vast number of previous academic studies to support its position. It is biased towards the need to preserve endangered species. It serves as a practical guide to instill and action-oriented approach in children.
Nowicki, B. (2004). Delays in Endangered Species Act protections lead to extinctions. Earth Island Journal. Autumn 2004. Bnet. Retrieved 5 December 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6393/is_/ai_n29110438
One of the key concerns of environmentalists is that while species undergo the long legislative process to become listed, many have become extinct. This article used case studies as primary evidence for its claims. It highlighted the case of the Marshall pearly mussel as a prime example. The article supports and highlights the success of the Endangered Species Act, when it is implemented properly. However, it points out key loopholes in the legislation that have dire consequences for the species that it is intended to protect. This article is written in nonprofessional's language and is intended for journal subscribers. It is biased towards the ESA, as it does not consider the fairness issue with allowing proper debate and opposition to the positions.
A www.nationalcenter.orgOpposition to ESA: Letter from 85 national conservative and property rights organizations to the chairman of U.S. Senate Environment & Public Works Committee regarding proposed changes to Endangered Species Act (2006). Retrieved 5 December 2008 at http://www.nationalcenter.org/ESAPropertyRights022706.pdf
This letter was written to in opposition to the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Kelo v New London. It contends that the ESA strips private property owners of their rights and use of their land. It is a key piece of evidence as to those opposing the ESA.
Owen, D (2008). Climate Change and Environmental Assessment Law. Columbia Journal of Environmental Law. 33 (1). Retrieved 5 December 2008 at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cjel/33_1_files/owen_abstract.html
Climate change continues to accelerate loss of habitat and is expected to have a dramatic impact on species loss in the future. This article suggests that existing legislation needs to be examined for its effectiveness in curtailing further climate degradation. The study addresses a little studied question of if current legislation provides the means to provide greater control.
Peterka, G. (2002). The Endangered Species Act and Chlorinated Water Discharges. Research & Extension Regional Water Quality Conference. Retrieved 5 December 2008 at http://www.swwrc.wsu.edu/conference/Papers/Greg_Peterka.pdf
The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) enforces the Endangered Species Act for marine animals. The Act's 4-d Rule allows the NMFS to sanction activities that could harm fish. This study examined several chemical methods of neutralizing chlorine in water discharges near streams containing listed fish species. These methods are still under investigation due to unknown effects on human populations. However, they will continue to be studied and may represent a key to controlling chlorine discharge in the future. This article presented the key findings from an empirical perspective. It was an overview intended for a technically oriented audience.
Schweiger, L. (2008). Endangered Species Act itself remains endangered. JS Online. 31 August 2008. Retrieved 5 December 2008 at http://www.jsonline.com/news/opinion/32580399.html
This article supports the position that the Bush administration should not amend the Endangered Species Act. It takes the position that the changes proposed by Bush will render the Act ineffective in protecting endangered and threatened species. This article cites the successes of the Endangered Species Act and the harms that the proposed changes would cause. It is written by the president and CEO of the National Wildlife Federation. The article is informative, even though the author has a decided financial interest in the position of the article.
Silvestro, R. (2004). Where Would They Be Now? National Wildlife. Aug/Sept 2004. 42 (5). Retrieved 6 December 2008 at http://www.nwf.org/nationalwildlife/article.cfm?articleId=958&issueId=69
This article profiles examples of species that would be extinct, had it not been for the Endangered Species Act. The include the bald eagle, Florida panther, key deer, Mauna kea silversword, piping plover, Florida manatee, Desert Tortoise, Karner blue butterfly, and gray bat. This article explores the successes of efforts to save these species and the importance of doing so. Data is drawn from U.S. Fish and Wildlife reports. It has a decided bias in favor of the ESA. It did not present a balanced perspective of the issue, or address concerns by the opposition. The article appeared in a publication by the National Wildlife Federation, which represents major lobbying efforts in favor of the ESA.
Stone, S., Leahy, M., & McCallum, E. (2008). Wolves Lose Protection Under Endangered Species Act - Defenders Press Release. The Boreal Avenger's Journal. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 5 December 208 at http://journals.democraticunderground.com/TheBorealAvenger/78
This news article informs the reader of the delisting of the northern Rockies Gray wolf, placing the species in the hands of the state. It is feared that this action will only result in rapid decline of the wolf species and that it will soon have to be relisted. This was a highly controversial decision. The article was funded by a lobbying group and demonstrates bias opposing the delisting of he grey wolf. The article presented both sides of the issue, but presented it in a fashion that appeared biased towards the opinions of the supporting group.
Taylor, M.T., K.S. Suckling, and R.R. Rachlinski (2005). www.biologicaldiversity.orgBioScience 55 (4): 360-367. Retrieved 5 December 2008 at http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/swcbd/PROGRAMS/policy/CH/bioscience2005.pdf.
As of 2005, 1095 species were listed as threatened and endangered. Species with critical habitat recover plans for two or more years, were found to be twice as likely to have an improving population trend in the late 1990s. They were less than half as likely to be declining in the early 1990s as species without habitat recovery plans. Based on the results of this study, the authors recommend increasing funding of habitat recovery plans. This source presents the results of an empirical study that used biennial reports issued by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Statistical analysis of the data contained in these reports were used to draw conclusions for this quantitative study. The study supports the effectiveness of the Environmental Species Act and its continued funding. Although the study favored continuation of the Environmental Species Act, it presented both sides of the issue, including studies that were contrary to the findings of this study. It represented both sides of the issue, was based on reliable source data and provided a solid basis for actions resulting from the study. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=437&invol=153" TVA v. Hill 437 U.S. 153 (1978). FindLaw for Legal Professionals. Retrieved 5 December 2008 at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=437&invol=153
One of the most famous cases regarding environmental concerns against the interests of big business is the Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill, et al. case, brought before the United States Court of Appeal for the Sixth Circuit. This is the case findings in their entirety. This case resulted in the relocation of snail darter populations, which TVA had to pay for. The primary reason for the case was that the project was nearly complete when the snail darter was listed. This case highlights the need to further define conditions of the Endangered Species Act to account for such circumstances.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Endangered Species Act of 1973. (1973) as amended through the 108th Congress. Retrieved 4 December 2008 at http://www.fws.gov/endangered/ESA/sec2.html.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is available in its entirety through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife website. It is easily searchable with links to the various sections of the Act. It is useful to be able to read the act in its entirety for reference, as adopted by Congress. This is a necessary reference for anyone research the Endangered Species Act. It is difficult to understand due to legal terminology.