Assignment 2-1 -- a- Radiation may be considered information from space; different types of information from different sources. These are: 1) Light as a wave and particle, 2) Electromagnetism, 3) Cosmic Rays and 4) Ultraviolet radiation.
Part 2-1-B- Light may be measured by telescopes; other space radiation by radio waves; x-ray machines may absorb cosmic and x-ray energy.
Part 2-1-C- Stars and Planets emit electromagnetic; Sun emits UV, Electromagnetic and light; light intensity, etc. Measuring radiation from objects tells us numerous things; age of object, comparative data between object, distance, intensity, level of danger, potential changes within object over time.
Part 2-1-D- Spectrographs, radio frequency detectors, x-ray machines.
Part 2-2-a -- an atom is the smallest unit of matter; ions are types of atoms in which the protons and electrons (parts of the atomic structure) are not equal. Ions can exist independently in solution, while atoms may or may not be able to -- even though atoms are the smallest particle of an element that can have a chemical reaction. The ion makes up the electric charge (positive or negative) of an atom.
Part 2-2-B -- an atom may be excited if it hits (collides) with another atom or electronic; or if it absorbs a proton. This excitement may be thought of as a higher level of energy.
Part 2-2-C- Hotter materials have faster moving atoms, thus causing the heat to be generated. The Wien Law explains the way in which all heated object emit a measured spectrum of waves, and the beak shifts to shorter wavelengths as the temperature rises.
Part 2-2-D -- a continuous spectrum is a chart of colors from red to ultraviolet; light emitted by gas in which there is an electrical charge is a bright line spectrum; dark line, or absorption spectrum is due to absorption of light by cool cases. Examples 2-3 below are all of hydrogen:
Bright line Spectrum (Hydrogen):
Dark line/Absorption Spectrum (Hydrogen):
Part 3 -- Spectral classification is a way of describing starts based on the ionization of it chromosphere (what atomic exitors are more abundant in the light, giving it a characteristic hue). It is related to the Balmer Series in that Balmer is calculated using a formula that designates spectra from hydrogen.
Part 4- the sun is the center of our solar system, is about 110 times the size of earth, and over 300,000 the mass, accounting for about 99.9% of the total mass of the solar system. About 75% of the sun is hydrogen -- as if it were a roiling ball of nuclear fusion. Despite being mostly hydrogen and helium, the sun consists of a number of structures: sunspots (areas of heavy gravity that prevent heat exchange from interior to exterior); prominences (circular gaseous emissions that flow out towards space); solar flares (large explosions in the sun's atmosphere that release huge amounts of energy); and solar wind (streams of charged particles that are ejected from the sun's upper atmosphere -- mostly electrons and protons that vary in temperature and speed.
Part 5- the Earth as we know it is dependent upon the sun for warmth, radiation, our system of hydrology (evaporation, condensation), and photosynthesis (the manner of plants using sunlight as energy to produce other chemicals). In addition, the sun produces UV radiation that causes human bodies to produce needed vitamins (D & K, etc.). However, we exist in a very narrow range of tolerance. The earth's atmosphere protects humans from damage from the sun, keeps the earth relatively stable in terms of heat and climate, etc. Additionally, energy from the sun, flares, etc. could disrupt the earth's magnetic core, causing a shift in the tectonic plates, volcanic activity, etc. Too much heat and light could evaporate the oceans and great lakes of the world. and, if a large solar flare encompassed the earth, the radiation would likely wipe-out humans.