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The CDM is meant to award the developers 'credits' for supporting projects in developing countries which avoid greenhouse gas emissions (Joy, 2000). Provided that these credits can be bought and sold, effectively the price of the project is decreased. It has been anticipated that this may decrease the price of nuclear plants by as much as 20 or 30 per cent. On the other hand it was decided, after pressure from the EU, that nuclear projects should not be eligible for CDM credits, with opponents to nuclear inclusion arguing that it was not a clean, safe or sustainable option, nor a useful tool for economic development, at the reconvened Conference of Parties to the Kyoto agreement held in Bonn in 2001 (Ferguson, 2010).
Despite the fact that there are some scenarios for a nuclear revitalization in Western countries, this does not appear probable to be on a big level, and it is maybe for that reason not astonishing that, even with no CDM, the chief importance for Western nuclear companies at present seems to be export orders, with the developing world being an apparent objective (Nohrstedt, 2008).
Disclosure to Public
This highlights the problem of the role of nuclear power, in economic expansion. Some developing countries obviously perceive nuclear power as part of the industrialization development. 'High' technology progress like this may advantage a number of members of the technical and economic leaders in a few developing countries, although it can also be debated that importing capital-intensive nuclear power technology does not appear to be the greatest bet for those Third World countries that are under pressure with previously huge foreign debts, or those whose populations in mainly require cheap, uncomplicated, nearby accessible sources of power (Brantley, 2009). There are also doubts that part of the pull of 'going nuclear' is that it can give a means of increasing nuclear weapons. There are additional ways to getting the required nuclear resources, but civil nuclear programs give one possible source.
Even though most, but not all, countries in the world have signed nuclear non-proliferation agreements, nuclear development continuous to raise concerns about the ethics of illegal diversion of materials for creation of nuclear weapons like plutonium (Converse, 1964). These resources are cautiously restricted, but a black market has developed, mainly since the fall of the Soviet government. Adding up to the security crisis by constructing more reactors would appear to be foolish (Ferguson, 2010).
The ex-Soviet nuclear scheme, which gives around 12 per cent of the electricity used in the region, also presents other problems: the safety of some of the reactors worries many observers, but few of the new Central and Eastern European states can afford to clean them up - or to shut them down, since they need the power. Finances to help develop safety measures have been made accessible from the EU and other places, and moreover for the building of a number of latest reactors (Doyle, 2009). Considering that Russia has one of the biggest reserves of gas anywhere in the world, this may emerge a little extraordinary, but then Europe is relying on having right to use to these gas reserves when North Sea gas turns out to be scarce, and Russia desires the foreign exchange it can make from trading its gas to the West. In this circumstance it is possibly less astonishing that they and the West are keen to keep Russia's nuclear plants going and support the construction of new ones.
Laws, rules and lawsuits come about after injuries and damage has happened. The legal answer predictably lags behind the familiarity of those on site especially those having witnessed nuclear disasters like the one in Japan. Conscientious engineers in the workplace can foresee problems and take actions to avoid or decrease harm. Additionally, they obtain information that is required for producing suitable legal rules. Certainly, certain issues of accountability for individual engineers concern duties with regard to the regulatory structure. The regulatory framework provides important support but not an alternate for the autonomous judgment and accountable conduct of engineers.
Martin, M.W. And Schinzinger, R. Ethics in Engineering, 2d Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2008.
Brantley, C.J. Survey of Ethics Code Provisions by Subject-Matter Area, American Association of Engineering Societies, Washington, D.C., 2009.
Doyle, Thomas E. The Moral Implications of the Subversion of the Nonproliferation Treaty Regime, Ethics and Global Politics 2, no. 2. 2009.
Ferguson, Charles D. The Long Road to Zero: Overcoming the Obstacles to a Nuclear-Free World, Foreign Affairs 89, no. 1. January/February 2010.
Khushf, G. The Ethics of Nanotechnology: Vision and Values for a New Generation of Science and Engineering, in National Academy of Engineering, Emerging Technologies and Ethical Issues in Engineering. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2004.
Joy, B. Why the Future Doesn't Need Us, Wired Magazine. April 2000.
Reynolds, G.H. Ethics Must Play…[continue]
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