Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
They accuse Coyne of giving modern intellectuals "permission to remain biologically illiterate, through assuring them there is nothing useful or important that they could learn that would help them address the intellectual problems they face." (Tooby and Cosmides).
Without undertaking an independent investigation of the evidence used to support each author's work, it is impossible to determine who makes the most valid arguments. However, if the facts listed argued by Tooby and Cosmides are true, then they do much to bolster the arguments made by Thornhill and Palmer. In fact, the arguments made by Thornhill and Palmer are very sound from a logical point-of-view, even if it is ultimately impossible to prove or disprove their hypothesis. That at least one species of animal has evolved a special organ specifically to accomplish rape clearly establishes that rape can be an evolutionary function and can be related to genetic evolutionary success. Furthermore, they do not focus on the motives of modern rapists, but instead on what type of behavior may have led to the selection of genes that would promote raping behavior. If reproductive age women and disenfranchised men are overrepresented as rape victims and rapists, those factors would seem to support an evolutionary element to rape.
The aspect of Coyne's argument that appeared the weakest was his due focus on child molestation and homosexual rape. For a man, the act of having sex with a child or with another man is, by definition, maladaptive sexual behavior, because it is impossible for such sex to result in the transmission of genes. Therefore, to use the fact that both children and males are highly represented among rape victims to disprove the concept that rape behavior is the result of evolution is irresponsible science. Consensual homosexual sex is maladaptive sexual behavior, and the gene for homosexuality, if there is one, is not represented in a significant portion of the population. However, the rape gene, if there is one, would have to be highly represented in society, since the percentage of men who have forced sexual contact on a partner is much higher than the percentage of men who have engaged in consensual homosexual contact. Therefore, it is clear that these genes are not the same genes; as a result, one could be homosexual and still carry a gene that combines violence with sexuality. However, one's homosexual orientation would naturally translate that impulse to homosexuals. The same argument could be made for child molestation. Coyne's failure to acknowledge that possibility is his greatest weakness.
Coyne also posits that the reproductive costs of rape would be so high in evolving societies that it would argue against an evolutionary theory of rape. However, the sociological evidence does not tend to support such a theory. In every historical society, it has been women who bear the social costs of rape, making later reproductive success less likely for them, but not for the rapist. While individual families or victims may have sought retribution, it is only in the last 100 years or so that any society has taken a hard-line view of rape as a crime and supported harsh penalties against the rapist. To assume otherwise in developing societies is not supported by looking at primates who rape; male primates are not punished for sexually aggressive behavior.
Given that there has not been one human society that does not engage in rape, and that rape is almost exclusively perpetrated by males, it seems entirely possible that men are genetically predisposed towards rape, given the appropriate triggering conditions. That modern societies see large epidemics of rape in war-time or under conditions like slavery or the modern sex-trade, it seems equally clear that one of those triggering factors if viewing the potential victim as something slightly less than human. In addition, given that rape is used as a wartime weapon for the stated purposes of "ethnic cleansing" it is clear that some rape is used reproductively. Furthermore, none of the researchers discusses the phenomenon of spousal rape, which is extremely prevalent, typically not-reported, not a crime in the majority of countries, and frequently results in pregnancy.
Coyne, Jerry. "Of Vice and Men: A Case Study in Evolutionary Psychology." The University of Denver Portfolio Community. 2007. The University of Denver. 12 Feb. 2008 https://portfolio.du.edu/portfolio/getportfoliofile?uid=98279.
Thornhill, Randy and Craig T. Palmer. "Why Men Rape." Iranscope.com. 2000. Iran Scope.
12 Feb. 2008 http://iranscope.ghandchi.com/Anthology/Women/rape.htm.
Tooby, John and Leda Cosmides. "Letter to the Editor of the New Republic." The University of Denver Portfolio Community. 2007. The University of Denver. 12 Feb. 2008 https://portfolio.du.edu/portfolio/getportfoliofile?uid=98280.[continue]
"Evolutionary Theory Of Rape Evolutionary" (2008, February 13) Retrieved December 9, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/evolutionary-theory-of-rape-32249
"Evolutionary Theory Of Rape Evolutionary" 13 February 2008. Web.9 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/evolutionary-theory-of-rape-32249>
"Evolutionary Theory Of Rape Evolutionary", 13 February 2008, Accessed.9 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/evolutionary-theory-of-rape-32249
Evolution of Rape One of the most controversial theories in evolutionary psychology is the idea that men have evolved a rape adaptation. This is considered a controversial notion because when this theory was introduced many people felt as if it was an attempt to provide excuse or justification for rape. For many years, sexual assault advocates focused on the idea that rape was about violence, not about sex, and it
When viewed from that perspective, it becomes understandable that a jury could not eliminate the second story beyond a reasonable doubt, and, therefore, had to acquit Michael of the crime. Psychological treatment of suspect Given America's complex racial history, it is no surprise that race is oftentimes seen as a significant factor in rape. There is no doubt that black men have been unfairly targeted as rapists in America. This is
Marital Rape Attitudes toward Marital Rape among College Students Close to 62% of female rape victims are between the ages of 12 and 24 (Rosenthal 407), an age group which encompasses the college years. This would explain why an estimated one in four college women have been raped while attending college (Rosenthal 412). The men responsible for this statistic, between 7 and 25% of all male college students, admit to forcing a
Murder and rape are both legal terms that are used in contemporary society to describe the social construct of crime. Murder is a homicidal act resulting in death that is not permitted by the laws within society. Therefore, shooting a man to death as a lawful soldier engaged in a warranted military conflict with another country's group of soldiers is not considered murder. The same action between country members
The overall literature available on this theory is more or less mixed as some studies claim that there is nor relation between the two concepts (Pelletier & Herold, 1988), whereas others state that rape fantasies are high where women are sexually suppressed (Hariton & Singer, 1974), yet another study concluded that the women who had higher ratio of rape fantasy were mentally more healthy towards the concept of sex (Gold
Gift giving creates a bond between the giver and the receiver. Mauss felt that to reject a gift, was to reject the social bond attached to it. Likewise, to fail to reciprocate is viewed as a dishonorable act in some cultures. Gift giving is a means to create social cohesion among the group. What Distinctive contributions did Weber make to social theory? Weber used his work to attempt to understand the
Rape in Conflict There are various situations in life that results in rape in conflict; Patriarchy The feminist perspective on the various forms of violence perpetrated against women does suggest strongly that such acts are a reinforcement of patriarchy. This is portrayed in the unequal bargaining power that exists in the various sexual encounters in the societies that are increasingly patriarchal. The fact that the traditional male privilege has continuously faded away through