The objective of this work is to first, define the concept of fractionalization, to describe how it relates to the television, magazine, and radio industries and provide examples and then to give an opinion regarding the effect of fractionalization both on the media on society.
Secondly, this work will define the concept of globalization, describe how it relates to the television, recording and film industries and provide examples. The questions will be answered of "What is the effect of globalization on the cultures of the world? What is the political effect of globalization? Who does it benefit? Who does it harm?" And answers will be backed up with opinions on the subjects. Lastly, this work will define the concept of convergence, describe how it relates to the television, Internet and recording industries and then answer the questions of, "How would convergence affect our daily lives? Would it be a positive or a negative for our society?" And then back up the answers with opinions.
I. Fractionalization and Its' Relation to Television, Magazine and Radio Industries
Lind (2000) in the work "Fractionalization and Inter-group Differences" wrote that, "Fractionalization has recently been shown to have a detrimental effect on growth, public goods provision, and redistribution." The standard measuring of fractionalization, termed the Herfindahl index Lind (2005), states that "all groups are equally distant." Lind (2000) In the study of fractionalization it is stated that the "concept usually defines at the probability that two randomly chosen persons belong to different groups, be it ethnic, religious, linguistic, or other groups." Lind (2000) relates that with a massive data set of cross country data inclusive of probabilities as such was available credited to "Soviet anthropologist's work in the 1960s on the Atlas Narodov Mira.[and] studies then showed that fractionalization led to more corruption (Mauro, 1995), bad policies in general and low growth (Easterly and Levine, 1997) low provision of public goods (Alesina, Baqir, and Easterly, 1999), less social mixing and activity (Alesina and La Ferara, 2000), and low voluntary contributions to schools (Miguel, 2003, MIguel and Gugerty, 2003)" Lind (2000)
It can be understood therefore the fractionalization is a division between groups in the area of financial and economic factors which may be influenced by political agenda as well as other factors within society. According to the website located at http://www.databanks.sitehosting.net/cnts/d efinition/def_par_frac.htm, fractionalization in terms of a politics or the:
'Party fractionalization index is based on the formula proposed by Douglas Rae in "A Note on the Fractionalization of Some European Party Systems," Comparative Political Studies, 1 (October 1968), 413-418. The index is constructed as follows:
F = 1 - sum (ti)2
tti = the proportion of members associated
With the ith party in the lower house of the legislature.
Public fractionalization is a danger," according to Mircea Dan Geoana who states that he sees a "double disconnect in the stories being told via the internet" (Bollier, 2003) .While on story disconnects elites at the national level from their fellow citizens, another set disconnects the West form the rest of the world." Newspaper circulation is related to illiteracy and income in a negative manner and statistically shows up significantly. However illiteracy does not seem to affect "television penetration rates in the same manner as ethnic diversity does, thought one might expect that in a multilingual context, there may be less demand for certain media if they cater to the main language."
Also stated is that "radio receives penetration is higher than other media penetration in all regions, and radio is the primary medium for reaching citizens in many developing countries. The radio, according to Stromberg, broke rural isolation in the United States and increased the political power of rural countries." Stated is that radio's and other media's reach is much further in countries that are developing that in already established and industrial countries where income and literacy affects the areas of both supply and demand. Furthermore, media has the potential to create "signi8ficant concentration for a large number of people."
Other influencers of media access are government policies, licensing requirements, Due to globalization in the world the media of foreign countries have the potential to impact outcomes on domestic levels through channels of:
(a) Influencing domestic opinions and coalitions; and (b) By influencing foreign opinions and coalition, which then pressure their governments or international organizations to undertake actions that affect the country in question? (Lind, 2000)
Media influences outcomes in economic, political and social areas in the form of shaping policy matter. The government that wants to extend the media's reach may do so through "enhancing competition, reducing restriction on entry and encouraging and participating in innovative ways to reach people."
While agreeing that the media is able to impact all aspects of life particularly that of social and public policy matters consideration of "The Herfinadahl Index" is far too simplistic and very general in the measure of distance between groups, due to the fact that it holds that the distance is identical, however it is unreasonable to think that at all times, and in all circumstances that all distances between groups are identical. Therefore a more realistic model would be more suitable in the globalized world of today.
II. What is the effect of Globalization on the cultures of the world?
Globalization has brought about many changes in the world in the areas of economics, marketing, industry, trade and in fact all areas in the interactions among multinational firms. Because that countries have developed interdependencies and continue to do so with many of the world's countries experiencing trends towards integration in the many economic front of financial and trade markets and industries globalization is apparently here to stay. Globalization has spread capitalism "to a degree that has never been witnessed before" (Friedman, 1999) and is in fact "enabling individuals, corporations and nation-states to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper and cheaper than ever before ... " (Friedman, 1999)
III. What is the political effect of globalization?
Globalization has affected politics as well in that political agendas in cohesion with their accompanying power of influence are the cause of globalization according to Princeton University Professor Richard Falk in his work entitled "Predatory Globalization: A Critique."
IV. Who does it benefit/harm?
There are inherent benefits naturally for societies integrating through sharing of knowledge however on a business level the smaller business are being ingested by the larger companies in the form of acquisitions that the small business owners are unfortunately giving in to. Globalization benefits business with lower costs and better supplies as well as more markets. The benefits to developing countries are in the form of the creation of jobs and tax revenues. Developed countries benefits are in relation to production increase, import/export as well as growth on a corporate level. Globalization has unfortunately affected wages lowering them while jobs are outsourced and there is evidence economic uncertainly due to globalization for many.
While it is true that globalization does benefit bigger big business and promotes political agendas, as well it allow for sharing of knowledge in medicine and sustainability measures and other critical information. Globalization has been both positive and negative for today's society.
V. Definition of Convergence
Convergence is stated to be, "The goal of convergence is to use one technology or resource for many different things - to eliminate redundancy. The deep process of convergence is fairly gradual: Technologies (and their attendant institutions and market mechanisms) take years to supplant one another. Sometimes, however, venerable institutions, made gradually vulnerable by years of progress, become overnight casualties" of economic circumstance. In other words convergence is 'fusion' in business between two entities whereby one company is effectively dissolved into another or a mutual fusion occurs.
VI. How would convergence affect our daily lives?…