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Terrorism is a systematic use of terror or violence as means of achieving purpose. Within the international community, the act of terrorism has no legal binding. Common definition of terrorism refers to a violent act intended to create act of terrors to achieve political, ideological and religious goals, typically, terrorists disregard the safety of non-combatant civilians. The concept terrorism is an emotional charged and politically loaded and has been practiced by a broad array of political organizations. However, the indiscriminate use of violence against civilians has been the major characteristics of terrorism. (Spindlove, & Simonsen, 2010). The act of terrorism has become a global phenomenon where there are linkages of terrorist organizations in one country with terrorist organizations in other countries. The rapid development of telecommunications has assisted in the development of global terrorisms.
Purpose of this research is to explore a global terrorism as the main aim of inflicting destruction.
The study provides several significant.
First, the study explores the concept terrorism and the strategies employed to achieve their political, religious and ideological goals. Moreover, the research provides the method of data collect. The data collection procedure is followed up by the research findings.
A terrorist is a militant, guerilla, rebel, insurgent or freedom fighter. Terrorism is a political motivated violence generally aimed at non-combatant group of people. However, the EU (European Union) defines terrorism as a violent crimes aimed at seriously destroying or destabilizing the fundamental economic, constitutional, and political structures of a country. (Kushner, 2003). Based on the different definitions of terrorism identified, global terrorists are usually based outside the country and operate in multiple countries. More importantly, global terrorism is:
1) a non-military and armed group of people united in a common ideological, political, or religious cause,
2) armed group operating in a clandestine way, and without a publicly-known identified headquarters,
3) threatening to commit or committing acts of significant violence,
4) usually against group opposing their views, mainly civilians.
Terrorists do not abide by civil laws as well as formal rules such as the Geneva Convention when conducting their acts. Typically, they usually employ uncertainty and other psychological threats to produce fear in order to influence others to follow a particular course of action.
Alex, (2004) identifies an act of terrorism as perpetuating serious crimes using form of random murder and form of assassination. Terrorism is also a form of guerilla or psychological warfare with deliberate attempt to disregard law of war. Blocher, (2011) support this argument by pointing out terrorism is one of the greatest threats to global stability and security. While there is no universal agreed definition of the concept terrorism, however, terrorisms have certain features in common. They all use criminal acts and terrors to achieve their goals.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the states were known to inflict terrors on civilian. After the Second World War, terrorism was seen as the lens of cold war where Soviet allied group perpetuated state sponsored terrorism. Until the 20th century, there was no global effort to counter terrorism, however, given a cross border act of terrorism with the use of dangerous weapons and advanced communication systems, terrorisms have now become a complex global problem and threatening an international peace and security.
Some of the examples global terrorisms are:
Bombing of Jewish Cultural Center in 1994 killing 100 persons,
Hijacking of Air France Jet perpetuated by the Algerian Armed Islamic Group.
Bombing of a Panamanian commuter aircraft in 1994 killing 21 persons. (U.S. Department of State, 1995).
Jack, et al. (2012) argue that United States is the top target of terrorism and the target is likely to increase in the future. Many terrorist organizations aim their terrorist act at the United States with the intentions of using lethal weapons in order to produce severe damages. The most destructive terrorist act that the United States has ever recorded is the attack World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. The Trade Center, Twin Towers was destroyed by a group of terrorists with over 3,000 people lost their life, the terrorist acts of September 11 was organized by a terrorist organization based outside the United States.
Apart from the terrorist attack on the United States, the terrorism has become a global phenomenon. The bombing of Madrid in Spain as well as bombing of tourist restaurant at Bali in Australia are the examples of global terrorisms. In Russia, hundreds of schools children were killed during a terrorist attack in Beslan. Moreover, several people lost their life in Israel when a suicide bomber blew up a restaurant. The issue is that when terrorist attacks a country, the victims generally compose of different nationalities. While the goal of terrorist attack on the U.S. World Trade Center was to inflict damages on the Unite States, however, the Americans were not the only the victims during the attack, 372 foreign nationals were among the victims. In the attack, approximately 90 countries lost their citizens. While the United States recorded the highest loses, the United Kingdom was the other country that recorded the highest lost of life in the event. India lost 47 citizens, and the Dominican Republic, 47. The devastating effects of terrorism have made the act of terrorism to become a global issue. (Spindlove, & Simonsen, 2010).
It is widely agreed that international cooperation is very critical to fight a global terrorism. In the realm of judicial cooperation, a terrorist act should be a crime in all countries. The first attempt to deal with global terrorism occurred in 1937 when the League of Nations drafted a convention for the prevention of the act of terrorism. However, the fall of the League of Nations end the convention activities. From 1963 till date, 14 international treaties have been adopted in reaction to a specific terrorist attack. Despite the international treaties adopted to fight a global terrorism, there is still no code in international law that punishes offenders of terrorism. (Blocher, 2011). Further global cooperation is very critical among state and non-state actors to fight global terrorism.
This section provides the strategy that the research employs to collect data and review related research literature or materials. The study collects data by conducting a comprehensive search from professional journals, academic textbooks as well as articles from professional internet sites. The study conducts literature search from academic database to enhance reliability and validity of the research paper. The study conducts literature search from academic database from the EBSCOhost, an Online Research Database that contains millions of professional journals, research articles, and e-books.
"EBSCO Information Services provides a complete and optimized research solution comprised of e-journals, e-books, and research databases -- all combined with the most powerful discovery service to support your information needs and maximize the research experience of your end-users." ( EBSCO, 2014).
Typically, many universities and colleges around the world subscribe to the EBSCOhost. The study searches for data from the EBSCO because the database contains an optimized and complete research solutions that comprise of e-journals, and e-books, which are combined to deliver the most powerful management resources and discovery service in order to maximize research experience for end users. Moreover, EBSCO offers 375 secondary and full-text research databases with 355,000 e-journals packages and e-journals.
To collect data related to the study, the research uses the specific keywords to search for research articles. The keywords include global terrorism, terrorist act, international terrorism, and act of terrorism. Using these keywords, the paper has been able to locate the required research papers for the study.
Apart from searching research articles from the academic database, the study also searches data from professional internet sites that contain academic textbooks. The data collection strategy assists in enhancing data reliability and validity.
The research reveals that global terrorism has become a phenomenon that affects countries globally. Typically, global terrorism has a network in different countries without a recognized headquarter. One of the strategies that terrorists employ to be known globally is the use the force or threats. The PFLP (Popular Front Liberation of Palestine) was known globally because the organization hijacked an aircraft in 1968, which made the group to attract worldwide attention.
To attract more attention, a Palestine terrorist group known as Black September stormed Munich Olympic Village during an Olympic Games in 1972 and took 11 Israelis athletes hostage. Such high profile terrorist attacks attracted global media attentions, which made other terrorist groups globally realizing that it was critical to act in an extreme way to attract a global attention. Subsequently, the terrorist bombed public places, hijacked planes, and employed suicide bombers tactics to blow up target populations. (Kushner, 2003).
The study also discusses the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001 in the United States, which was committed by Al Qaeda, a terrorist group in the Middle East. "Al Qaeda is an Islamic terrorist network formed in 1989 in Afghanistan by Osama bin Laden." (Jack, Bailey, & Matt, 2012, p. 238 ). Al Qaeda main goal is to form one government under the…[continue]
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