Global warming has become an issue of major global concern. This research explores the complexities of the issues surrounding global warming and the development of models to help curb the human contributions to its continuation. This research focuses on the UAE and its initiatives to develop sustainable cities in the future.
Evolution of Cities
environmental change and Global warming
Field Work and Case Studies
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) covers an area of approximately 777 sq. km and has a population of over 5 1/2 million residents according to 2009 statistics (Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. 2009). The country has the six largest oil reserves in the world and is one of the most developed economies in the Middle East. It has one of the most developed infrastructures in the Middle East as well. Global warming has become a key issue in developed nations that rely heavily on industry such as the UAE, are considered to be major contributors to the problem through their production of greenhouse gases. This research will explore the problem facing the UAE and other nations around the world as a struggle to meet the demands of an increasing population, dwindling resources, and global warming.
Identifying the Problem
Every being on earth leaves a footprint that places a certain demand on ecosystems. As the population of the world increases, the demand for energy increases as well. Currently, there is evidence that temperatures and sea levels are beginning to rise. The changes in the surface are measurable now and it is predicted that these changes will continue for the next 1000 years. Human activities that release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere are believed to be responsible for these changes. Humans now consume more resources than the earth can sustainably replenish. If this trend continues large-scale ecosystem collapse and even more dangerous climate changes are expected. The problem being addressed by this research and the global community is how to maintain the standard of living to which we are a custom, yet managing our ecological footprint so that we do not continue on this destructive path.
Aim and Objective of the Study
They aim of this study is to address the problem of how to reduce the effects of our communities on the global economic system. It will focus on architecture and urban planning as a means to lessen our impact and stop the hastening of global warming. They miss to explore means by which are been architects and planners can develop future urban areas with their impact on global warming at the forefront of their development.
The objective of this study will be to develop concrete actions and considerations for planners and urban developers of the future. It will serve as a guideline in the development of urban centers that reflect sustainability and concern for the environment. It will focus on five primaries areas that will have the greatest impact on the environment. The areas of concern will be
Farming (food, fiber, grazing, aquaculture, and biofuels)
Fishing (over-fishing, illegal & unregulated fishing, and by catch)
Forestry (timber, paper, pulp, and fuel wood)
Water (dams, irrigation, and drinking supplies)
Carbon, Energy & Climate (energy use, impact of forest loss, and the need for a new global policy on climate change)
The focus of the study will be on how the population and urban centers can be supported, while lessening the impact of human activity on these five key environmental areas. The focus will be on simultaneously meeting human and environmental needs.
The hypothesis of the study will be that, "it will be necessary for the government of the UAE and other world governments to play a more active role in the development and enforcement of strategies to lessen the impact of urban centers on the environment than they have in the past."
Research Questions Underlying The Research
Many questions arise on the topic of global warming and measures that planners can take the lesson the impact of human activity on rising global temperatures. In order to address the hypothesis, several research questions will also be addressed in this research study.
1. How does the existing management structure of the construction industry in the UAE affect the implementation of policies for sustainable development?
2. Which policies and regulations would be most effective in promoting sustainable development in future urban areas?
3. How can performance of architects and construction companies be measured in terms of their impact on the environment?
4. How can these goals be achieved without jeopardizing the economic sustainability of future development?
The Structure of the Research
This research will be presented in six separate chapters. The first to which is the introduction, which explains the purpose and objectives of the study. The second chapter will be a literature review that explores the evolution of urban areas. The third chapter will examine environmental change and global warming. Chapter four will directly explore the contribution of the UAE to global warming. Chapter five will summarize the methodology used in this study. Chapter six will explore case studies related to the hypothesis. Chapter seven will present the findings of the research study.
The model derived from the study will be based on a selection of tactics and existing approaches to sustainable development. It will entail a number of writings from variety of credible sources. A preliminary exploration of the literature available found that many studies focus on one part of the issue, but not all of it. This study will use a comprehensive approach that will explore the many facets of this complicated issue. Literature review will also explore other factors such as the economic and socio-economics impacts of the model. It is recognized that the needs of different countries and urban areas differ. This research will serve as a model that may serve as a guideline for the development of methods that reflect the individuality of each location to which it is applied.
The Research Methodology
The research methodology to be using the study will consist of a case study to help develop a model that will effectively define the role of both the government and private entities. It will explore their role in sustainable urban development of the future. This research will take an exploratory approach and will evaluate the case studies is in qualitative research methods and analysis. The topic of global warming has no clearly defined guidelines. Therefore a comprehensive quality of the approach will facilitate the development of the desired model.
Chapter 2: Evolution of Cities
If one is to understand how cities impact will warming, one must first understand the nature of the cities themselves. In the early days a modern man, it was soon found that it was easier to supply resources and maintain safety in numbers. In the beginning man was nomadic, traveling from place to place the following food sources. Between 8000 to 10,000 years ago the systematic cultivation of plants in the domestication of animals resulted in the establishment of more permanent settlements (Ellis). This was the beginning of urbanization.
Several factors have influenced the development of cities. Some of the key factors are geographic and Clem attic influences. For instance, streets are often aligned to take advantage of cool breezes, the location of a healthy water supply, topography, and the occurrences of natural disasters. Buildings and structures are often adapted to account for climatic characteristics (Ellis). The function of the city also plays a role in the planning and development of the city. Cities exist for many purposes including trade, manufacture, and as thoroughfares to other destinations (Ellis). The purpose and climate of the city are a key influence in the structure and buildings that are a part of it. As a result of these influences, every city develops its own personality and style.
Local authorities are the ones who are closest to the city planning and they will be able to directly see the impact of their efforts. They are also closest to the communities of the city into the issues surrounding them. When local authorities fail to properly plan the city problems develop. Often these problems are not apparent until many years down the road. These problems make themselves known through traffic congestion, insufficient housing, high unemployment rates and social problems, as well as the exodus of businesses from the area. Sometimes this failure in planning becomes apparent in the face of a natural disaster. The importance of city planning in avoiding problems of the future cannot be underestimated. Such is the case as we face a future where global warming will be in increasing serious concern. It has been suggested that architects need to play a bigger role in local governments and planning efforts (Kostaras. 2011).
Urban metabolism is a term that refers to an analysis of how is city uses resources and consumes energy. Just as our bodies metabolize food, this method of describing a city examines the energy flows of materials and resources into and…