Group Dynamics Research Paper

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group dynamics/Group interaction.

It is a norm where candidates apply for jobs and switch jobs if they happen to stumble over a good opportunity. Similarly, a candidate applied for a Sales Manager position in a reputed International firm. The candidate worked in the designated post as a Sales manager for 2 years until the candidate happens to receive a better opportunity with good pay package in another company. Erratically, the candidate faced paradigm shift of the new society. This is a normal, norm. Every company has their own culture, rules and regulations. Only what is noted here is that the candidate was unable to raise the anticipated revenue for the fellowship which the candidate was earlier generating. The candidate faced flak of motivation and felt regret of switching the job (Certo and Certo, 2008).

Withal, it is observed that a good pay packet is constantly employed in head hunting by company's recruiters to attract talents. Only what the management now a days is facing; is the issue beyond hierarchy. It is comfortable to attract talents to the company, but it is surely becoming a daunting project to sustain or motivate them. The corporates and SMEs are feeling strained to motivate talents/employees. They are determining the motivation process complex. Best description of motivation is as an individual's strength, leadership qualities, self-motivation in persistently accomplishing the team goals of an organization (Certo and Certo, 2008).

Many authors have developed remarkable theories of group dynamics which also includes timely premature theories and modern theories. These theories has been experimented and applied in day-to-day lives, jobs, individual goals in personal lives and professional lives of the people (Certo and Certo, 2008).

However, in this assignment the author intends to discuss, scrutinize and investigate the three most popular theories of group dynamics.

1. The most famous Maslow's theory; Hierarchy of needs theory.

2. Herzberg's Two-factory Theory.

3. Adam's Equity Theory.

The aim of this assignment is to analyze the impact of these theories of group dynamics at the workplace. It is a crucial issue for top management to make their employees workable and high spirited because a manager's most basic tasks is to connect and motivate with their team members / employees. Evidently, this assignment will detail the issues faced by the corporate and make them understand the issues regarding motivation. The conclusion will have recommendations and suggestions for the firms to tackle with the issue of motivation (Certo and Certo, 2008).

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Basic Propositions of Maslow's Theory

Maslow's theory has become one of the most well-known motivation theories. In his hypothesis he has proposed five essential steps of hierarchy needs that an individual accomplish on his/her lifespan. An individual needs are identified in a pattern of a pyramid and the foot of the pyramid starts with physical needs such as; food, shelter and water. Then an individual is concerned about his/her psychological needs such as; safety, social activities, respect to only advance to the next stage of the pyramid that is; Self-realization. The demand of self-actualization might be defined as one's "the desire for self-contentment, for example the tendency of an individual to become actualized for what he hypothetically desires for. The theories identified in pyramid shape indicate the superiority of some needs excelling than other needs. According to Maslow's, a lower level need is largely identified as a satisfied need. The impact of this need diminishes the errant behavior of an individual (Certo and Certo, 2008).

Maslow's theory is very popular but the implication of the theory has not always been successful in relating diverse issues of an organization. Many a times this theory has been experimented and applied on issues and results has been diverse. The hypotheses results for the needs of motivation differed according to the size of an organization, individual and the geographical position of the firm (Certo and Certo, 2008).

Maslow's hypotheses largely debates that when a human's basic needs or the needs at the lower level are met then only a human climbs the ladder of advancement (i.e.; next level of needs). A human does not have the tendency to seek the leap of highest need if the individual is not satisfied with the lowest need. According to a Chinese archaism, it is significant that a human learns to walk before he attempts to run. Similarly, the basic concept of the Maslow's theory also points out the similar opinion like that of Chinese archaism. A detail article published in a newspaper; "Why Pay raise is not everything" the author found some definite key points that relates to the group dynamics theory of "Hierarchy of needs theory." If we review the pyramid figure we can identify the basic needs of a human are physical needs such as (food, water and accommodation) and how crucial it is to acquire them by currency (Certo and Certo, 2008).

Human/Individual strives and works hard for a better earning to support more than the basic requirements of life. However, organizations still attract talents by offering them a good pay check. Like some HRD promise them an annual hike in their remuneration at the time of hiring without even considering what performance they are to deliver in future. Employees also receive annual hike despite their poor performance. This strategy is basically used to retain employees in longer run and to also lessen the workload of the HR. This strategy is often used in an organization to control high employee turnover ratio. This also saves the cost of recruiting, selecting and hiring a new agent. The point to be noted here is that these mid-level employees are not novice out of college who are looking to improvise their living culture. However, representing the Maslow's concept human needs growth accordingly as the basic needs are increased. The good pay renders in satisfying their needs which has heighten according to their rise in salary package. This has led them to aim for higher level of needs as the yearly package is able to satisfy the lower level of needs (Certo and Certo, 2008).

The group interaction also indicates that needs of mid-level and high-level are above the apprentice employee. Moreover a few of mid-level and high level employees needs are illustrated below (Certo and Certo, 2008).


Affection and ownership needs; for example: tenderness, friendship, fondness, love, desire, wants and wishes to gain appreciation in a team on getting connected with new team members.


Respect / reputation needs: Recognition bonuses, hikes, promotions will calm this need.


Cognitive needs: This need is related to the peace of mind. According to Maslow this is required to keep their minds fresh and think out of the box concepts and excel amongst the colleagues.

The article mentioned above by Professor Carol Kulik on group dynamics also indicates towards the issues that a good pay cannot tackle. Likewise, it is also debated that a good pay cannot fix a bad day at work. This certainly makes sense that when there is an issue to be tackled and you cannot fix it, an individual does not run towards this pay slip to fix the issue. The author of the article also mentioned that the motivation factor that a pay slip renders does not last long and it tends to wear off soon. The motivation potential which a pay slip is supposed to render is lost when an individual becomes accustomed to it. The article also points out towards the motivation treats the company have to splash to boost employees' motivation. Many organizations arrange weekly parties, employee of the week; gifts for the best performer etc. schemes to shake up their motivation ground. According to Mr. Ma Dong, (CNC weekly) the Labor Scarcity has become a raw kinds of crisis for companies in the under developed world, according to the data catered by government, the price of employing a labor is superior than hiring a Bachelors fresher (Certo and Certo, 2008).

Herzberg (Two-Factor Theory)

Basic Proposition of Two-Factor theory

Herzberg's Two-Factor group dynamic theory splits Job satisfaction and motivation factor in two individual group interactions. They are likewise recognized as factors of motivation and Hygiene. According to Herzberg's theory the "Motivation" factor has six elements attached to it namely (Dessler, 2008):












Possibility of professional growth.

And hygiene Factor is based on the "Job context" elements; namely:


Policy and procedures




Link with Management


Pro-connects with fellow workers,




Personal Life,


Connections with subordinates,




Job security (Dessler, 2008).

The theory has two facets intrinsic and extrinsic motivators. The intrinsic motivator factor is too known as job content factors. It describes what people actually doing their work place. The extrinsic motivator factor is likewise experienced as "Job context" factor. It describes what employees do not have control on; these factors are more based on the work's paradigm culture. These are the elements that contribute to job dissatisfaction as…[continue]

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