Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Although there is a broad range of treatment options for heroin addiction, including medications and behavioral therapies, research indicates that when medication treatment is integrated with other supportive services, the addict is more often able to recover and return to a stable and productive lifestyle (NIDA). In 1997, a panel of national experts concluded that opiate drug addictions are diseases of the brain and medical disorders that can be treated effectively, and recommended broader access to methadone maintenance treatment programs, including the elimination of Federal and state regulation barriers impeding this access (NIDA). The panel also emphasized the importance of providing substance abuse counseling, psychosocial therapies, and other supportive services to enhance retention and successful outcomes (NIDA).
Methadone blocks the effects of heroin for approximately 24 hours and has a proven successful when prescribed at a high dosage level. Other medications include naloxone, which is used to treat overdoses, and naltrexone, both of which block the effects of morphine, heroin, and other opiates (NIDA). Buprenorphine differs from methadone in that it is less addictive and can be dispensed in a doctor's office (NIDA).
Methadone maintenance together with prenatal care and a comprehensive drug treatment program can improve many of the detrimental maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with heroin abuse during pregnancy (NIDA). Research indicates that buprenorphine is safe and effective in treating heroin abuse during pregnancy, however infants exposed to methadone or buprenorphine during pregnancy usually require treatment for withdrawal symptoms (NIDA). Pregnant women who do not want to or are not able to receive pharmacotheraphy may detoxify with relative safety, yet the likelihood of relapse should be considered (NIDA).
There are numerous effective behavioral treatments available for heroin addiction, including residential and outpatient approaches. Contingency management therapy uses a voucher-based system, in which the patient earns points based on negative drug tests that can be exchanged for items that encourage healthful living (NIDA). Cognitive-behavioral interventions are designed to help the patient modify his/her thinking, expectancies, and behaviors, and increase coping skills for various life stressors (NIDA).
In the November 1998 issue of The Journal of Psychology, Frank Patalano reported the results of a study conducted to study cross-cultural similarities in the personalities of heroin users in the United States and India. Findings indicated that Indian heroin users were more neurotic, impulsive, sociable and extraverted than their American counterparts, and that both male and female heroin users readily admitted personal difficulties (Patalano). Moreover, there were differences regarding the level of emotional distress, depression, and sensitivity (Patalano). According to the study, users showed less emotional stability and were more easily upset. They also had less ego strength, were more insecure, more frustrated, and had weakened superego strength (Patalano). These findings were similar to the results of earlier studies of hard core heroin addicts in the United States and later studies of male and female multiple-substance abusers, who used heroin as well as other illicit drugs (Patalano).
In the January 1997 issue of The Journal of Psychology, B.S. Gupta reported the results of a study in which fifty persons who were addicted to heroin and fifty persons who had never used drugs were studied to determine the personality characteristics of persons addicted to heroin. According to the findings, the addicted respondents scored higher on five scales: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Impulsivity, and Sociability, as well as Trait, on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Gupta). Moreover, the addicted respondents had lower scores on intelligence, emotional stability, ego and superego strength, rule compliance and self-sentiment integration on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Gupta). They were also more sensitive, overprotected, prone to guilt, insecure, troubled, tense and frustrated (Gupta).
Common slang names for heroin include smack, china white, horse, and black tar. Roughly 60% of the world's opium is produced in the remote part of Southeast Asia, as well as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Colombia, and Mexico (From).
A single dose of heroin, called a 'bag,' may contain 100mg of powder, but only 1 to 10% is pure heroin, the remainder could be sugars, starch, powdered milk, or quinine (Heroin). According to www.streetdrugs.com, heroin purity today ranges from 1 to 98% with the national average of 35% (Heroin). Injection is considered the most practical and efficient way to administer low-purity heroin, while users of higher purity heroin now can snort or smoke the narcotic (Heroin). Research indicates that heroin snorting is widespread and is increasing in those areas of the country where high-purity heroin is available (Heroin).
From Flowers to Heroin. The Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 07, 2006 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/heroin/flowers_to_heroin.htm
Gupta, B.S. (1997, January 01). Personality characteristics of persons addicted to heroin. The Journal of Psychology. Retrieved July 07, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin. Street Drugs. Retrieved July 07, 2006 at http://www.streetdrugs.org/heroin.htm
NIDA InfoFacts: Heroin. (2006 April). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved July 07, 2006 at http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/heroin.html
Patalano, Frank. (1998, November 01). Cross-cultural similarities in the personality dimensions of heroin users. The Journal of Psychology. Retrieved July 07, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Scott, Ian. (1998, June 01). A hundred-year habit.(centenary of Bayer's chemical medicinal - heroin). History Today. Retrieved July 07, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Simon, Scott. (1998, September 19). When Heroin was Legal. Weekend Saturday:
National Public Radio (NPR). Retrieved July 07, 2006 from HighBeam Research…[continue]
"Heroin Like All Drugs Knows" (2006, June 08) Retrieved December 8, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/heroin-like-all-drugs-knows-70804
"Heroin Like All Drugs Knows" 08 June 2006. Web.8 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/heroin-like-all-drugs-knows-70804>
"Heroin Like All Drugs Knows", 08 June 2006, Accessed.8 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/heroin-like-all-drugs-knows-70804
Drug Profile Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, Rodriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248() Socio-economic effects Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study
Abusing illegal drugs can give rise to crime and violence, even if they are used in an allegedly positive way to 'open up' and 'free' the mind. Even overusing antibiotics, and insisting upon taking them even though one's disease is likely caused by a virus can cause a rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and can impact general human health. However, refusing to take certain medical treatments, such as refusing to
Drug Use During Pregnancy There is no point within the study of human biology that is more awesome than the conception and development of a child. It is during this time that most people would say the most amazing work of the lord become evident, in abundance. Let the children come to me, and do not hinder them; for to such belongs the kingdom of heaven." (Mk. 10.13, 1952, p. 23) It is
Drug Education The DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program
According to NIDA: A range of treatments exist for heroin addiction, including medications and behavioral therapies. Science has taught us that when medication treatment is combined with other supportive services, patients are often able to stop using heroin (or other opiates) and return to stable and productive lives. (NIDA, August 2009, p. 2) Drug treatment options are used often in combination with traditional cognitive behavioral and social behavioral therapies
14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14). By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced