Munich - the place where racial laws and measures against the Jews in Germany were established.
Each of these announced the type of extremist, xenophobic policies that the Japanese and the Germans would be using against their enemies in WWII.
11. Total war was a new type of warfare that was introduced in WWII and that relied on the idea that there could be no limits to the way war was carried out. This included, for example, attacks on the civil population and acts such as massive bombardments of cities. Further more, total war also relied on a full connectivity between all parts of the army: infantry, air force etc. In order to obtain a full surprise effect.
12. The firs phase of the war was a defensive phase, with the UK and Russia (in Europe) and U.S. In the Pacific trying to fight back the German and Japanese aggressions. As soon as the level of forces changed, the Russians started pushing back the German invasion, with the U.S. fighting of the Japanese towards Japan itself. At this point, other fronts were opened in Europe with the invasion of the Italian Peninsula and the Normandy invasion, which meant that, at this point, Germany was virtually surrounded. The Russians played a crucial role in their resistance, not only because they gave hope that the Germans could eventually be defeated, but also because they were able to push them back all the way to Berlin.
13. The nature of bombing in WWII was in complete alignment with the total war concept. Cities were simply wiped out and this was the actual scope of the bombardment: impose terror on the civil population so that they would eventually ask for peace. There was no limit to how far this would go. London was bombarded for about a year in hope that the UK will pull out of the war, while Dresden was completely wiped out at the end of the war.
14. Germany occupied the Czech Republic, Poland, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, France, Holland, with countries like Romania, Hungary, Slovakia or Finland remaining independent, but with fascist governments that favoured German rule. With the invasion of the Soviet Union, Germany also occupied large areas such as Ukraine and Belarus. Italy occupied Albania and Greece, as well as Serbia after German intervention. Japan occupied a South East Asia, large parts of China, the Philippines and Indonesia, as well as many of the islands of the Pacific, up to Australia. Most of the people occupied formed resistance movements during the war, fighting against the occupiers.
15. The holocaust was the genocide of the Jews in Europe during WWII. In this sense, the difference between the holocaust and other forms of ethnical genocides, like the ones mentioned, is that the holocaust refers explicitly to the extermination of the Jews during WWII. From this perspective, the holocaust is a genocide.
16. It is known that women often contributed to the war effort in different countries. In the Soviet Union, for example, movies show women working in the factories to produce tanks and weapons. In other countries, they took jobs such as bus drivers, allowing the war effort to be supported from home ground as well.
17. The Cold war was the ideological and economic confrontation that started between the Soviet Union and the United States (and its Western allies) with the end of WWII. The agreements at Yalta and Potsdam virtually divided Europe into two zones of influence, these being confirmed with the formation of two military blocks on the decisions of Yalta and Potsdam: NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East.
18. Hitler dragged the German nation and the world in the most devastating conflagration history has ever known. He was the main author of the Holocaust and left Europe in ruins after a 6 years war.
Roosevelt was not only the American leader during WWII, but also the president that can be credited with the economic reforms that took the U.S. out of the depression and into modern economic history.
Churchill was the main author of the English resistance and, probably, the leader than can be most of all credited with winning the war in Europe. If it wasn't for his stubbornness, it is most likely…