Identify the five phases of the training process model (TPM); explain fully the process that goes on in each of the phases.
The training process model (TPM) entails five key phases. The first phase is the identification and analysis of needs. Needs can be personal, organizational, or both (Lucas 1994). For example, a personal need will be the need to alleviate stress after the introduction of a new supervisor to the division, prompting the need for either managerial or employee training. An organizational need might be large-scale changes to the information technology infrastructure within the company, necessitating training in the new system. Regardless of whether needs are personal or organizational, they are usually assessed on the basis of identifying an organizational performance gap. The gap might be throughout the organization or only in one department, such as budgetary crises or poor consumer feedback. An organizational performance gap is measured as the difference between actual and expected organizational performance in any given area. An identifiable and measurable gap is often the triggering event for a training process ("Overview of Training" n.d.). After a needs analysis, the HRD manager can determine whether training is the appropriate response to those needs and if so, what type of training would be required.
The second phase of TPM is design. A training program must have clearly defined objectives. The specific employee outcomes must be matched with various appropriate methods of instruction. At this phase, the employee demographic and the needs analyzed in the first phase of TPM help the HRM manager develop a training program.
The third phase of TPM is the development of the training program, and more specifically, the instructional strategies that will be used. The training program developed at the third phase is implemented at the fourth phase of TPM. At this stage, it may be wise to conduct trial runs to ensure that the program will be successful. Any changes can still be made before implementing the program on a larger scale ("Overview of Training" n.d.). Finally, the evaluation of the training program determines whether objectives were met. Evaluation can be both qualitative and quantitative, and results can advise HRM of any potential problems that might arise.
2. Identify three factors that might inhibit HRD managers from developing a strategic planning approach to training. Recommend how these three factors might be overcome.
HRD managers might be inhibited from developing a strategic approach to planning because of restrictions in knowledge or information; restrictions in resources; and restrictive organizational cultures. The first factor, restrictions in knowledge or information, can be remedied by exposure to effective training models. Management is generally responsible for encouraging exposure to training and strategic approaches to training. If management is not trained to recognize organizational performance gaps, then it is unlikely that a triggering event would prompt HRD managers to investigate options for training. Therefore, awareness must be built into the organization. The organization must be willing to learn and grow by introducing the importance of training to all levels of management.
A second factor that might inhibit HRD managers from developing a strategic planning approach to training is a lack of resources. Strategic planning takes both financial and human resources. To overcome this obstacle, the organization needs to consider the costs of not implementing a training program or implementing one without performing a strategic analysis. In the first case, not implementing training at all can spell the death of the company, as employees are unable to keep up with changes in technology or management. Reduced productivity and low employee morale are other possible drawbacks of not approaching training strategically. In the second case, when training programs are designed and implemented without any strategic planning, the organization may end up wasting energy and resources. Strategic planning provides the means by which to develop targeted and cost-effective training programs that address specific needs. The purpose of strategic planning for training programs is to maximize company resources.
Finally, organizational culture can inhibit the implementation of a strategic planning approach. When management does not recognize the need for training at all, management is also unlikely to support initial investments into strategic planning. The only way to overcome this obstacle is for HRD managers to assertively point out the drawbacks with not taking action. HRD managers can also overcome this…