Humulus Lupulus Common Hop Term Paper
- Length: 12 pages
- Subject: Agriculture
- Type: Term Paper
- Paper: #74382232
Excerpt from Term Paper :
Hops (Humulus Lupulus) are well recognized and extensively grown for their use in preparing beer and lager. Whilst hops have been utilized in beer preparing in Europe from the Roman times, they started their widespread utilization in Flanders in the 14th century. Hops got admired recognition in Britain in the 16th century for medical and drinking reasons. The pure characteristics given by the hops, developed beer as an everyday drink instead of water, in a lot of areas water was usually unhealthy for human utilization
The Hop plant is a perpetual climbing plant that in character strings itself around trees. It is an associate of the Cannabidaceae species. Hops and cannabis are the only two types in the family and there are a lot of resemblances amid hemp (Cannabis sativa) and the cultivated hop. However, there are no "chemical" connections amid them. The nettle family is in the identical order and elm as all remote cousins (Tsuchiya and Araki, 1997).
German beer makers have been utilizing wild hop (Humulus lupulus) to give flavor to their drink for hundreds of years. Hop was introduced to the United States from England in 1629. The initial viable hop yard in the United States was founded in New York in 1808. Farming of the crop quickly increased south and west. Wisconsin turned out to be the biggest grower of hop for a short period late in the nineteenth century; however, New York continued to be the leader until the crop was almost wiped out in both states by downy mildew in the 1920s (Field and Nickerson, 1996).
Nowadays, the Yakima Valley in Washington generates nearly 75% of the hop cultivated in the United States. The mutual total production of Oregon, Washington and Idaho (the main cultivating states) goes beyond 50 million pounds yearly. Hop is cultivated on a restricted level in the Upper Midwest for domestic markets (Field and Nickerson, 1996).
Superior varieties have been chosen in opposition to downy mildew, becoming accustomed to mechanical yielding, and brewing characteristics (Field and Nickerson, 1996).
The production of beer consumes 98% of the world's manufacture of hop. Prior to the days of pasteurization, brewers utilized hop for its antibiotic characteristics, as well as its taste. In a number of countries the young shoots are consumed as a boiled vegetable.
The female "cone," which includes the small flowers and later the fruits, has resin glands which generate lupulin. Lupulin includes the vital oils and resins that provide the hop its fragrance and beer its sour taste. The alpha acids in the resin add to the sour mechanisms and comprise 4.5 to 7% of the weight of the dehydrated hop in majority of the domestic types and 8 to 12% in some English types. Eight to 13 oz of hop are utilized for each barrel of beer.
The hop plant is a vine that generates yearly stems from a perpetual circlet and rootstock. The shoots, or 'bines', develop quickly to a length of 18 to 25 ft. As the bines develop, they coil around their support in a clockwise course, clutching with strong, fastened hairs. The leaves are hairy, heart- shaped, dark green, deeply lobed and serrate. The perpetual crown turns out to be woody with age and creates a wide root system. The roots might go through the soil to a profundity of 15 ft or more (Hughes, 1996).
The female flowers are produced in bunches on lateral branches. The hop plant is dioecious (male and female flowers are on individual plants). Female flowers shape pale green cone-like formations that are 1 to 4-inch lengthy and flimsy. Avoiding pollination generates seedless hop, which is thought to be more popular by brewers. Seedless hop weighs roughly 30% less than seeded hop and is more shatter-resilient at harvest (Hughes, 1996).
Hop is grown in a varied scale of climatic environments; ample dampness early followed by temperate weather, however, dry climate is perfect. In regions where rainfall is scarce and the water chart is more than 5 ft low, irrigation might be necessary (Tsuchiya and Araki, 1997).
deep sandy loam is the most excellent form for cultivating the plant. Badly drained, powerfully alkaline or saline soils ought to be avoided, since they are not good for the plant (Tsuchiya and Araki, 1997).
Hop plants are grown from runners that crop up from the crown just underneath the soil covering. The runners are reduced into parts 6 to 8 in. long, each bearing no less than two sets of buds. Cuttings ought to be cultivated right away or if not, stocked in a cold, damp, well-aired location. Cuttings that are badly cropped up, twisted, scratched or contaminated should not be sown (Tsuchiya and Araki, 1997).
A lot of hop growers set up a nursery block where cuttings are sowed and developed for one season. One-year-old groups are relocated from the nursery in the spring or fall (Tsuchiya and Araki, 1997).
The soil for Humulus Lupulus ought to be cultivated to make a weed-free field before planting. Cuttings are sowed in hills with a room of just about 8 x 8 ft at a planting thickness of 800 hills/acre. Hop is developed on an overhead trellis system that might be designed to smoothen the progress of mechanical harvest.
Humulus Lupulus can be planted in early May or immediately after the soil can be worked into a fine, rich condition. Plant 2 to 4 cuttings/hill with the buds pointed up and enclosed by 1/4 to 1 inch of baggy soil (Tsuchiya and Araki, 1997).
When the young vines are approximately 2 ft long, two to six dynamically growing vines are chosen for each hill and the leftovers are separated. One to three vines might be trained up each of two strings positioned on the hill and stretching out to the threading wires of the lattice above its head. When the vines touch the threading wires, the lowest 4 ft of plants and side branches are detached to help in the avoidance of disease, particularly downy mildew, and insect pests, primarily spider mites. The taking away of lower leaves (stripping) ought to be done cautiously to prevent harming the stem. Shoots cropping up from the crown are constantly detached early in the period in order to encourage the development of the chosen vines (Tsuchiya and Araki, 1997).
Fertility and Lime Requirements:
Humulus Lupulus can give good harvest in the Upper Midwest if soil has sufficient fertility. The cropped fraction of a good yielding hop crop takes away just about 100 lb/acre of nitrogen. This quantity of nitrogen ought to be applied on soils with organic substance levels amid 2 and 5%. Somewhat less nitrogen (approximately 70 lb/acre) is required if soil organic substance levels are larger than 5%. Approximately 130 lb/acre of N. is required if soil is coarse-textured, organic substance level is below 2% and the field is cultivated. Split applications are suggested on these coarse-textured soils. Organic substance might be added by returning the spent vines to the field, using fertilizer or cultivating under a winter cover crop for example vetch or small grain (Hughes, 1996).
Quantity of phosphorus and potassium sufficient for high-quality harvest are parallel to that essential by field corn. If soils have best possible levels of extractable phosphorus (11 to 20 ppm for silt loams, 23 to 32 ppm for sands) just about 30 lb/acre of P2O5 ought to be used to substitute that phosphorus detached by the harvested segment of the crop. Approximately 100 lb/acre of K2O are essential for soils testing in the medium K. range (81 to 110 ppm for silt loams, 61 to 80 ppm for sands). Smaller quantities can be used if soil test quantities are more than medium, however, extra applications of approximately 10 to 30 lb/acre P2O5 and/or 20 to 40 lb/acre of K2O are required for the most excellent cultivation if soil test quantities of phosphorus and/or potassium are below medium. Fertilizer ought to be used and included before planting (Hughes, 1996).
Three kinds of hop (Humulus Lupulus) are cultivated in the United States: the Old World (aroma) varieties; the American varieties; and the new High Alpha (extract) varieties.
Old World (aroma) varieties comprise the traditional aroma cultivars of Europe and hybrids resulting from them that share their aroma and growing character. These varieties are measured to be of average drinking worth, with 4 to 8% alpha acid and weak to mild aroma. They are typically early growing varieties and are modified to cultivation in a cold type of weather. A number of aroma type hop (Humulus Lupulus) varieties consist of Fuggle, Willamette, Columbia, Cascade, as well as the German cultivars Tettnanger, Hallertauer and Hersbrucker (Murakami, 2000).
Fuggle has been cultivated commercially in England for more than a century. It turned out to be popular in Oregon in the 1930s for the reason that of its opposition to downy mildew.…