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Of course, this study was conducted twenty years ago, and the inclusion movement has advanced considerably. Today, students are actually integrated into the classroom and also have the assistance of special education teachers present in the mainstream classroom. They also are more inclined to experience full inclusion instead of partial inclusion.
Tarver-Behring, Spagna & Sullivan (1998) define full inclusion as "the existence of only one unified educational system from the beginning of formal education, encompassing all members equitably, without regard for variations in their status" (p. 52). Hanson et. al. (2001) compared the experiences of special needs students transitioning from preschool to kindergarten, some of whom experienced partial inclusion, and some of whom experienced full inclusion. After studying these children for a period of five years, the researchers found that the greatest influence on their success was the level of support of the parents and teachers. When there was an adequate level of support, these students excelled in the inclusion process.
PROS and CONS of INCLUSION
Many researchers have come up with mixed results. For example, Manset, et al. compared eight inclusion models for elementary students with mild disabilities. The models were described and examined in terms of overall effectiveness for both disabled and non-disabled students. It was concluded that although reorganization and changes in curriculum can be effective for some, not all students with mild disabilities benefited from these changes. Overall, however, the authors concluded that organizational and instructional changes associated with inclusive programming had a positive effect on non-disabled students' achievement (cited in Charles and Senter, 2002).
Mixed results such as these are actually quite common, which is not surprising considering that there are so many variables that can affect the outcomes. For example, Lamar-Dukes & Dukes, (2005) found that in order for inclusion to be a positive experience for both the disabled and non-disabled students, children and teachers need to be properly instructed in skills that enable them to properly assimilate inclusion into their daily educational routines. Others have found variations on success levels based on severity of the disability, parental support, whether the school was in an urban or suburban setting and so on. While it is impossible to account for all of the variables that might affect how successful inclusion may be, what educators need to remember is that it is their ultimate goal to provide the best education for all students -- not just the wants that were lucky enough to be born without a disability.
Controversy over the effects of inclusion on the academic and social performance of non-disabled students remains high. Unfortunately it is difficult to find evidence that conclusively tells us whether inclusion deters or enhances student development. Much of this variation in results comes from demographics or severity of the disability of the students analyzed. Howver, many of the discrepancies could also come from the teacher's understanding of the special needs surrounding a successful inclusion experience. The implementation of more comprehensive inclusion-awareness programs for both teachers and students is paramount. Additionally, increased roles and responsibilities for those mainstream teachers who are willing to go the extra mile to assist their students helps to improve overall student performance, both academically and in life.
PROS and CONS of INCLUSION
Antoinette, M.L. (2003) Examining how the inclusion of disabled students into the general classroom may affect non-disabled classmates, Fordham Urban Law Journal, 30, (6) 2039-2049
Charles, C.M. And Senter, G.W (2002) Elementary classroom management (3rd ed), Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon
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Jorgenson, C.M., Schuh, M.C. & Nisbet, J.A. (2005) the Inclusion Facilitator's Guide. Brookes Publishing Company.
Lamar-Dukes, P. & Dukes, C. (2005) Consider the roles and responsibilities of the inclusion support teacher, Intervention in School & Clinic, 41(1) 55-65
Lyman, L. (1993). Group building for successful inclusion programs. Washington, DC: Flint Hills Educational Research Development Association Special Education Inclusion Conference.
Raschke, D. & Bronson, J. (1999) Creative educators at work: All children including those with disabilities can play traditional classroom games. In Renaissance Group. (n.d.) Philosophy: Children that learn together, learn to live together. Retrieved from http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/benefits.html
Schnorr, Roberta F. (1990) Peter? He comes and goes: First graders' perspective on a part-time mainstream student', Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 15(4), 231-240.
Sklaroff, S. (1994, January 12). a.F.T. urges halt to 'full inclusion' movement. Education Week.
"Inclusion Those In Favor Of" (2010, February 19) Retrieved October 23, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/inclusion-those-in-favor-of-14906
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Seeking support before a program is put into place is crucial, as it is this network of support that will serve to assist in solving the problems that will 6 inevitably arise. The second common roadblock is inadequate planning and scheduling for inclusion. Planning and scheduling should not only occur at the local level, but at the district level as well (Worrell 53). Often, the entire organizational structure of a district needs
Although this movement has created controversy and has seen mixed results, it has become a major force in the placement and education of children and is expected to expand in the future (King, 2003). Definitions Accommodations: when an aspect of the environment or expectation has been changed so that a child with a disability can be successful at completion of a task. Constituents: a citizen who is represented in a government by
inclusion, which calls for integration of students with disabilities to the regular classroom/education system in the United States. Specifically, it will provide arguments in favor of using full inclusion in the classroom. What's so special about special education? The children and what they can learn from educational experiences with their peers, that's what's special. Including special education students in the classroom benefits everyone, from the teachers, to the students,
The same attitude and emotional stance is displayed towards all students. Another important point is that students with disabilities are supported not as if they require extra support, but rather as a natural part of the support that all students can expect in the specific classroom. This is, as seen in the other literature, is an important component of curbing the mental and psychological disadvantages of the more traditional
Meanwhile, paraprofessionals and special education facilitators are available in greater supply and provide considerable relief to the burdens placed upon dedicated fulltime special education professionals (Suter & Giangreco, 2009). Whereas the traditional model of separate education for special-needs students requires that school systems rely on fulltime special educators and depends, necessarily, on their availability, that is not the case with inclusion programs. The inclusion of special-needs students within the regular
In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," Rasch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special
Leo Tolstoy's Inclusion In The Literary Canon In Tolstoy's prolific literary career, it appears that one central concern drove everything he did both in his life and his writing. This concern was the meaning of life. The drive behind the actions of his main characters in both War and Peace and Anna Karenina is the search for meaning in their lives. As part of this search, Tolstoy and his characters also