In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
What was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?
The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon the customs and traditions of the mother country. This meant that the Europeans were dominating areas they controlled: politically, economically, militarily and socially. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
After the 1700s, is when there was a shift in attitudes. This is because the Industrial Revolution was changing how firms were operating (as they required less human). In places such as Africa, this created situations where certain areas were continuing to embrace practices of the past (i.e. engaging in the slave trade). While other regions, were being positively influenced by these changes. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
Once the European powers colonized Africa is when these differences were most clear. As there were a host of strategies for: governing regions and extracting natural resources from them. This meant that the approach and tactics that were utilized are different from one European country to the next. As a result, those nations that were more industrialized (i.e. England), were embracing tactics that gave local authorities greater amounts of control. This is something that is completely different from other countries that were not as developed (such as Belgium). (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
By the early twentieth century, what seem to have been the overall effects of industrial capitalism and imperialism on world politics, economics, and social and class tensions in countries in the world?
In the early 20th century, there were vast disparities that were occurring from industrial capitalism and imperialism. What happened is the European powers were continuing to focus on areas that will give them some kind of: economic, military and political advantages. This meant that they were often exercising even greater control over specific regions for its natural resources. From a social standpoint, the European settlers used this as an excuse to move Africans away from areas with tremendous resources. This created economic and social divisions in many countries around the world. As there was a focus on select segments of the population in following the Europeans' traditions, practices, customs and laws. While other parts of society, viewed these individuals as sell outs who were kissing up to the foreign powers. (Nardo 57 -- 98) (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
These differences stoked tensions in many areas, where there was a sense of contempt for the Europeans. Yet, many individuals were powerless to prevent these activities from taking place. Once this occurred, is when the Europeans had a false sense of beliefs about their ability to control the area and extract natural resources (with locals allowing this). At the same time, it set the seeds for the eventual withdrawal of European settlers from the region. This is because this sense of anger was passed down from one generation to the next. Later on, these views were used to push African nations to become independent of the European powers (after many years of direct and indirect rule). (Nardo 57 -- 98) (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
Clearly, industrial capitalism led to the colonization of Africa. This was occurring with the Industrial Revolution creating vast disparities in society (from the basic philosophy of individual profit motives). Over the course of time, this greed was transformed in a desire to control the entire means of production. Africa was the most logical place, thanks in part to its vast natural resources and close proximity to Europe. This is what encouraged so many countries to have imperial ambitions during this time.
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Hamondsworth: Penguine, 1975. Print.