International Politics and Relations in the Current essay

Download this essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from essay:

international politics and relations in the current era, which define how communities and geographical regions relate to each other, have evolved over a period after time. The human history has been a roller coaster ride, full of violence, bloodshed and genocides. The term genocide refers to a planned and organized destruction against a national, ethnic or religious group.

In every geographical area, there are people from different ethnic, religious and social backgrounds and from different mindsets and school of thoughts. In general, one of the groups remains in the majority while the others remain in the minority. Both the majority and the minority groups have their own respective points-of-view which they aspire to enforce; however, since the majority has the numerical strength, they consider it their natural right to be in the powerful position. In some cases, it had been observed that the minority manages to take over the powerful position; however, it always remains under a threat of being overthrown by the majority. While the inhabitants of any geographical territory have always had a tendency to indulge into some kind of a conflict, the responsibility of maintaining the rule of law, discipline and stability lies on the shoulder of the nation's leadership.

When a deadly international conflict broke out in the twentieth century in form of the First World War, one constructive step that was taken by the nations who were party in the war was the formation of an organization that had the capacity to restore peace in the destabilized regions and can help seeking peaceful solution between the states that were stuck in conflict situations (Destexhe 1995). This organization was then known as the League of Nations. Initially, the aim of the organization was to resolve international conflicts in a peaceful manner. The primary focus was on seeking solutions to conflicts pertaining to geographical and territorial changes resulted due to colonization. However, as international politics evolved and more countries joined in, the League of Nations expanded its mandate to a broader spectrum of activities and emerged as the United Nations Organization. Since then, the United Nations is known for giving political, military, financial and economic assistance to nations that are in any sort of distress or conflict. The United Nations Organization has been a key player as a decision making entity in times of geographical and political conflicts between states. Throughout the history and up to the current age of globalization, the decision making process is always influenced by the people of the state, it political leadership, the foreign stake holders and the super national organization such as the United Nations Organizations (Long & Mills 2008). How these stakeholders and forces influence the decision making process depends on the culture followed in the respective political, administrative and supranational organization. Like any other organizational culture, this culture is also defined by the set of values, norms and belief systems prevalent in the organization and among its people.

This paper evaluates the role of various stake holders along with the supernational organizations like the United Nations Organization in influencing incidents such as the Rwanda Genocide of 1994. The paper analyzes, within the context of management, that how internal and external stake holders influence various decision making processes and make way to provoke or prevent such incidents that may affect history, politics, and human lives across geographical boundaries.

The background of the Rwanda Genocide dates back to the pre-world war colonial time. The Rwandese population is dominated by the dark skinned Hutus, while the white skinned Tutsis constitute the minority of the population. However, when the territory was taken over by the Belgian colonial power, the Tutsis were given an upper hand on ethnic grounds while the Hutus were pushed down to slavish conditions. After the Second World War the colonial powers found it difficult to maintain their power in their colonies, and the rise in nationalist and revolutionary ideas resulted in a series of independence of various colonies. Rwanda was one of them. After its independence the Tutsis were overthrown to be replaced by the Hutus however, the new government was installed on dictatorial lines. The Tutsis, many of whom were forced to seek refuge in neighboring countries, due to Hutu atrocities against them, created insurgent groups to invade the new territory. The government supervised Hutu militias and the Tutsi insurgents were ready to for a deadly clash at any time. As a result, the case was referred the United Nations so that it can assist in restoring peace. The United Nations, in turn, sent a peace mission to supervise the peace agreement in Rwanda, under the leadership of a Canadian military man, Lieutenant Dallaire.

Power and Politics of Organization

The reason why super national organizations such as the United Nations organizations are able to influence, provoke, generate, and prevent incidents like Rwanda Genocide is the power and position these organizations hold in the international politics. Countries around the world are dependent on the United Nation to a great extent, when it comes to strengthening their foreign relations with other countries, or getting their conflicts resolved. The United Nations Organization is well aware of this fact. Moreover, the United Nation itself is an institution which is made up of many member states, which means all those countries have a stake in the organization. The permanent members such as the United States of America are the major stakeholders, of the United Nations. Although it is not a written regulation, however, it has been a practice of the United Nations that they are influenced by the permanent members to a great extent and the Security Council keeps in view the interests of these permanent members before taking any decisions.

As mentioned earlier supranational organizations and strong stakeholders within the organization have power to influence major decisions and outcomes. The term power under management theory refers to ability to make things go the way one wants. In general there are three power bases, namely Coercive, Utilitarian and Normative Power (Etzioni, 1968). The most prominent power base in the case of Rwanda Genocide was Coercive and Normative Power. Coercive Power base involves making someone comply with one's wishes by force. On the other hand, normative power refers to a belief system under which the members of the organization believe that the organization has the right to control their behavior.

Both these power bases, Normative and Coercive were evident in Rwanda's case at various instances. For example, influential members of the United Nations such as Belgium, France and the United States, played a major role in influencing United Nation to withdraw its peacekeeping force from Rwanda. This was an example of Coercive Power where these strong stakeholders easily pressurized the United Nations to deviate away from the objectives it had set. Similarly, when Dallaire's assistance request were being processed slowly by the United Nations, an intervention by a Tutsi lobby played a major role in speeding up the process. This implies that the United Nation's power is greatly overshadowed by its stakeholders and their strong political pressures and lobbying makes it difficult for the United Nations to keep in line with its organizational objectives.


General Dallaire was leading the peace keeping force that was sent to Rwanda. Leadership has a key role to play in success and failure of any organization. Here Dallaire had a double test to take. His leadership was being tested in a cross cultural setting. He had to supervise a peace mission in a foreign land where two different cultures wre face off with each other. Dallaire tried his best to handle the situation. The management theory suggests that a leader must possess the confidence and courage to face challenges and take initiatives. Dallaire had possessed this skill well. However, his leadership skills were sabotaged by his superior, that is the United Nation. He did not get the required support and assistance that was necessary for the successful implementation of his mission.

The mandate of the delegation sent by the United Nations was to monitor the implementation of the peace process and prevent any further violence in the Rwandese territory. However, the militias sponsored and supervised by the Rwandese government were in constant process of triggering ethnic violence. Although Dallaire was assigned a leading position in the peace delegation, however, he was not given the required authority to take the necessary decisions. This was something that contributed in the greatest violence of the twentieth century (Long & Mills 2008).

One thing which Dallaire lacked as a leader was the skill to engage with both the cultures, Hutus and Tutsis, and create an alliance and built a trust relationship with both the parties. However, this needed some time which Dallaire was not allowed.

Dallaire's leadership skills could have been useful for the United Nations if the superiors would have shown considerable support. Under contemporary management theory it is important that superiors delegate responsibilities to lower hierarchy levels, however, it is also important that the superiors give the necessary…[continue]

Some Sources Used in Document:


Cite This Essay:

"International Politics And Relations In The Current" (2010, December 18) Retrieved October 27, 2016, from

"International Politics And Relations In The Current" 18 December 2010. Web.27 October. 2016. <>

"International Politics And Relations In The Current", 18 December 2010, Accessed.27 October. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • International Politics the Threat of

    In all cases there is the perception of the U.S. interfering in issues that should be dealt with locally, interfering to protect their own interest and to enforce their own values; a situation which leads to resistance. Terrorism may be argued as an action undertaken when people feel that they cannot be heard in another way. This resistance has been seen in terrorist attacks which may be directly related to

  • International Relations Theory and United Nations Peace

    International Relations Theory and United Nations Peace: International Relations (IR) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field

  • International Relations Australia Australia Some

    D., p.3). The author holds the position that no one tradition is best-suited in maximizing and advancing Australia's national interests in the international platform not just because all three traditions have their innate strengths but more so because these very same traditions have their innate weaknesses which make us believe that following only one line of foreign policy tradition is all but worry-free. The Evatt tradition has a widely-known pitfall. It is

  • International Trade Role of Leadership

    The recent change in his designation will put him in greater pressure to display neutrality in such cases as heads WTO. The role of Brazil in shifting its trade policy from an underdeveloped protectionist Latin American country towards becoming one of the fastest growing emerging economies with trade reforms will also be vital. Azevedo has to ensure that trade violations by Brazil do not go unchecked. Since the paramount responsibility

  • Current Events and U S Diplomacy Defining the

    Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy Defining the U.S. President Doctrine presidential doctrines refer to the stances, goals, policies, and attitudes that are acted by the country's foreign affairs. Moreover, the President of the U.S. outlines them. They are often referred to as "doctrines" since they elicit the country's sovereignty and stance in various policies, internal and external. Most American doctrines have touched on cold war and other foreign matters. The presidents who

  • International Relations Political Science the

    S. fails to consider the inmates as war prisoners, and does not allow them to defend themselves against the charges brought, is a complete breach of the Geneva Conventions. At the same time, statements such as Donald Rumsfeld's consideration that the prisoners of Afghanistan are unlawful combatants and do not enter the category of prisoners of war is simply a means of establishing a legal niche that would allow the

  • International Relations Tradeoffs Regarding Security Political Economy...

    Politics International Trade-Offs In international policy, as in the course of daily human life, self-interested actors must carefully weigh competing and often equally valid choices, and make for themselves some compromise between opposed values. It seems that as often as one is able to solve a problem, one notices that the very solution causes problems of its own. An unmitigated good is difficult to find even in one person's individual life, and

Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved