Teenage pregnancy is described as being pregnant or being a mother below 20 years of age in most of the conducted researches. Only two researches considered had an age limit of 20 years, while another one had a limit of 21 years (Noll, Shenk, & Putnam, 2009).
The rate of teenage child birth differs by a 10 factor in case of first world nations. Netherlands on one hand has a negligible rate of 12 infants per 1,000 teenagers each year while Russia on the other hand has a rate of 100 infants per 1000 teenagers. During the 1990's United States of America spiked with teenage pregnancies which was the same in 1980's as well. Japan and European nations have controlled pregnancy rates (40 infants per 1,000). England peaks the European bloc with teenage pregnancy. One research in 2000 concluded that annually in England, around 90,000 child births were noted. 7,700 girls belonged to the 16 years bracket, while 2,200 belonged to 14-year bracket. The statistics show that teenage pregnancy is a huge national issue in England and it needs to be addressed immediately (Sarantaki & Koutelekos, 2007).
A research has shown that in some European nations, most teenage pregnancies are averted, since these teenagers are aware of pregnancy termination programs which are easy to access and available at nearby healthcare center. Greece is one country which has high rate of abortion and less usage of contraceptive, except for condoms and withdrawal. Sex education isn't a part of school syllabus, information on contraception isn't available and unnecessary pregnancies need to be prevented as it changes a woman's life. During the recent decades, teenagers have been sexually active within the age bracket of 15-16 years, having experienced sex. In a research shown in 1993, it was concluded that teenage kids become sexually active earlier while their mental capabilities grow slowly and gradually. Financially stable and mature, they become later on. During teenage years, individuals have trouble making life choices dealing with sexuality issues (Sarantaki & Koutelekos, 2007). Hence, safe sex and sex education needs to be made commonplace. They should diagnose HIV and STD infections which have risen in few years (Sarantaki & Koutelekos, 2007).
Prevention Strategic Policies
Among other measures to cut down higher rates of teenage pregnancy, one option is to impart education to adolescents about the usage of contraceptive services for instance Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC) and its ease of access. With the help of a Fast Track Card System, contingency meetings can be sought. Apart from that, information must be spread regarding contraception and sexual health care centers below 25 (Sarantaki & Koutelekos, 2007).
A policy must be framed taking in consideration extrinsic and intrinsic mortality risks, and their role in reproduction process along with various health problems. In case of extrinsic mortality risks which are beyond control of a human being control have a role in influencing the prevention of risks for instance:
Having healthy behavior
Residing in poor social circumstances escalates the rate of extrinsic risk
In another research, when threats arise from external risks, humans have less control on their own mortality; when it is high, the basic idea is to give birth at an early age which would ensure an offspring. The decision makers should keep in mind that, this population can't take wise decisions in such an extrinsic environment (Dickins, Johns, & Chipman, 2012).
Rather than developing educational programs, investment must be targeted in maintaining and monitoring the risky neighborhoods. In case of England, it means that, public taxes should be allocated to fortifying the local authorities instead of teenage pregnancy programs focusing on places with high rates of pregnancy. In case of such areas, the property tax is low as rate of property is low and most of the dwellers are basically living on government welfare payments. Hence they pay more deducted payments. The local council mandate should focus on:
Cleaning and maintain property
Repair damaged property
Lessening street crime
Funds should be allocated in cutting down crime rate in such neighborhoods as well by police patrol (Dickins, Johns, & Chipman, 2012).
The research concluded after assessment that for attaining the envisioned outcome (cutting down child birth rates), initially the risk factors needs to be detected which influence teenager's growth process and design a strategy to prevent it. Another research shows that, just 25% of health care programs targeted the local population with respect to adolescence health and sexual health when many agencies worked side by side. A research in 1996 shows that with joint agency collaboration, teenage health crisis can be handled far more efficiently (Sarantaki & Koutelekos, 2007).
Second Treatment and Prevention
National level strategies
Apart from numerous programs the government has commenced, it can also include some newer programs to cut down the birth rates in adolescents, lessening the rate of social expulsion and resulting poverty arising due to it. The goal of this endeavor is to initiate teenage moms to retain their self-respect and maturity. It's a public health concern on the whole and necessary measures must be facilitated to prevent current rates of birth rate (Sarantaki & Koutelekos, 2007). Hence the aim is to develop such clinics which teenagers can visit during times convenient to them (school breaks / summer vacations) in order to gain knowledge about sex education, teenage pregnancy and its consequences (Sarantaki & Koutelekos, 2007).Proper funding is needed for such noble campaigns so an action plan can be powered into drive mode (Sarantaki & Koutelekos, 2007).
The government on the other hand needs to capture public attention and present the growing problem through media and facilitate their results at the same time which will influence the society positively (Sarantaki & Koutelekos, 2007). The basic goal of this endeavor is to cut down the amount of adolescence pregnancies in the age bracket of 15-17 years by imparting sex education. The teenagers can be conveyed this noble message in a nice and friendly environment.
According to Social Exclusion Unit Report, adolescence pregnancy was termed a major social threat related to social expulsion and outlined considerable number of factors which instigated the cause such as:
Low employment rates
The report also took notice of the fact that children in these situations are liable to be brought up in poor backgrounds, leading a life of substandard and deplorable diet. The report noted a connection: adolescence pregnancy results in social expulsion or it's a consequence of social expulsion? The scenario mostly shows that teenage parents fail to look at the bigger picture with respect to their future and their offspring's future (Hoggart, 2012).
Third Treatment and Prevention
The rate of teenage pregnancy was 22.8% in the current research. The results were similar in African countries as well. The research concludes that in spite of many ongoing anti-pregnancy campaigns, the rate of adolescence pregnancy remains unchanged. New methods should be developed for enabling family planning campaigns among the teenagers. The rural health care centers needs to develop youth friendly family planning centers pooling the entire community under their wing and instituting information educating communication (IEC) activities to fortify usage of family planning in teenagers (Amoran, 2012).
The research has concluded that lower social class teenagers usually have higher rates of pregnancy compared to high social class teenagers. They are unaware of sex education as well as sex care centers due to which they can avoid parenthood entirely. Hence, such underprivileged class should be addressed by youth social intervention campaigns. Research has shown that monetary crisis often leads to critical sexual situations as premature pregnancies occur due to this very reason. Youth social intervention programs and childhood interventions can instigate healthy living and impart sex education cutting the rates of premature child birth effectively.
The family planning programmes must be developed keeping in mind the adolescents of the society (Amoran, 2012). Teenage pregnancy should be designed keeping the age category in mind as well as the education on the grounds of care, gender, health and nationality issues. The forms of nationality should consist of:
Disputing sexual stereotypes
Interpretation of adolescence pregnancy (it should be brought up in public schools, colleges and during family talk)
Sex education or health education should be related to sexual citizenship with some room for arguing the sexuality a bit openly while evading the morality issue about socially acceptability and sexual self-restraint. Abstaining from a dialogue about sexual desire and satisfaction along with a threat to such social class is the primary reason for lack of sexual responsibility of adolescents (Fonseca, Araujo, & Santos, 2012).
In the year 2012, around 305,388 infants were born to women between the age group of 15-19 years. The birth rate was 29.4 among 1,000 women from this age bracket. In case of American teenagers, it's an improvement since the rate has dropped 6% from the original rate of 2011. In case of women between 15-17 years, the birth rate dropped 8% and…