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The second purpose was to explore the association of demographic variables and nurses' perceptions of pump implementation to ratings of the management team and job satisfaction. Data was collected via a survey given to 1056 nurses at a tertiary Magnet hospital. The first section of the questionnaire pertained to demographic characteristics, while the second section consisted of thirty questions on a 5-point Likert scale based on both STS Theory and the Life Patterns Model conceptual framework.
The researchers conclude that generalizations cannot be made based on just one study. They did state however that the findings of this study give credence to the importance of technological changes in clinical nursing practice. Recommendations were made for future studies in that there is a need to analyze the degree to which technology affects the environment, patient acuity as well as overall nursing satisfaction. Carrying out this study in more that one hospital may have provided more information on a broader level. The study was limited to just one setting, which tends to narrow the results that are obtained. With this limitation, the findings could not be compared to nurses in other hospitals at all (Bowcutt et al., 2008). Specific recommendations included replicating this study in other types of hospitals and in non-Magnet hospitals in order to obtain a broader cross section.
The next phase of the study involves an assessment of perceptions three months after implementation and a comparison of those findings to the initial perceptions as well as an analysis of the perceptions of nurse managers. Another limitation of this study was that the management team felt that placing hospital or other identifying codes on questionnaires would limit responses because of the sensitive nature of some of the questions. Thus no identifiers were used on the data collection tool and only group data was compared.
The researchers were able to identify several correlations of data after the study was completed. This study found that interface of the social and technical aspects of infusion pump implementation is clearly evident. Participants in the study indicated that it would have an impact on nursing care provided as well as job satisfaction. The pump was seen to increase safe medication administration and decrease anxiety without taking away control from the nurses. The researchers suggest that technological advances now need to be studies with regard to nurse retention (Bowcutt et al., 2008).
The results of the regression analyses found that there were no significant effects of roles on job satisfaction, which lead the researchers to conclude that the participants were nurses who chose to be in their current roles and on their current units (Bowcutt et al., 2008). Increased job satisfaction was shown with higher ratings of fellow staff members and nursing management and the perception that pumps are intended for safe nursing practice. The study found that time and daily routines had a significant influence on job satisfaction, indicating that they pump may have helped nurses better manage their time. Just like in other studies, the nurses perceived that more medication errors are made than are ever reported. Job significant was significantly related to ratings of nursing staff and management teams (Bowcutt et al., 2008).
It might have been helpful if the researchers had looked at other groups besides nurses in order to see if any of the issues were job specific or could be attributed to wider hospital issues. It might have also been better if the researchers had used the method of quota sampling in order to better guide the selection of subjects for the study. Both of these things might have yielded more accuracy in the results.
The researchers state that the study was conducted in a major tertiary care hospital located in the south-eastern United States. Bowcutt et al., (2008), does provide a brief discussion on how the instrument was developed, stating that, "The Dillman Method using symbols, graphical, verbal and numerical entries was used to formulate the instrument and enhance response rate."
The instrument was evaluated for validity and reliability. The research team, including the nurse administrative team of the hospital, reviewed and revised the instrument. Prior to implementation, 28 registered nurses who were not part of the study were asked to complete the questionnaire. They were again asked to take it two weeks later. A Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .756 was established for the pre-post test comparison. Further reliability testing was done on the total number of questionnaires completed.
Questionnaires are very cost effective when balanced with in person interviews. This is particularly true for studies involving big sample sizes. Written questionnaires become even more cost effective as the amount of research questions goes up. Questionnaires are simple to analyze. Data entry and tabulation for almost all surveys can be simply done with a lot of computer software packages. Questionnaires are common to most people. Nearly everybody has had some experience completing questionnaires and they usually do not make people anxious.
Questionnaires decrease bias. There is consistent question presentation and no middle-man bias. The researcher's own opinions will not pressure the respondent to answer questions in a certain way. There are no verbal or visual clues to pressure the respondent. Not like other research methods, the respondent is not disturbed by the research instrument (Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method, 2011).
The researchers went to great lengths to make sure that the survey instrument that they used was appropriate for what they were trying to study. The tested both the validity and reliability of the instrument so that they could make sure that they results they got were as accurate as possible.
The researchers used a quantitative design in the article to analyze the perceptions of nurses regarding the implementation of an intravenous medication infusion system technology and its perceived impact on associated nursing care, reporting of medication errors and job satisfaction. The design of this study was appropriate considering the nature of the research question. The researcher's main aim was to determine if the how the implementation of medicine infusion pumps has any effect on medication errors and job satisfaction.
In quantitative research the aim is to determine the relationship between one thing an independent variable and another thing, a dependent or outcome variable. In this study the perceptions of nurses regarding the impact of the intravenous medication infusion pump system technology is the independent variable. The dependent variables include: nursing care, reporting of medication errors and job satisfaction.
The method of convenience sampling was used in order to select the participants for this study. All registered nurses and licensed practical nurses totaling 1056, employed by a major tertiary care hospital located in the south-eastern United States were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Those who agreed made up the sample. There were 691 completed questionnaires returned. The target population was clearly described and identified. This population was appropriate for looking at the relationships between the independent and dependent variables that were being looked at. The researchers did not mention whether or not the sample size was justified. Bearing in mind the nature of this study, the sampling method used was sufficient to establish a base for a starting point. The design was non-experimental and therefore it was not necessary to conduct it in a controlled environment.
Data Collection Methods
Questionnaires were administered to 1056 nurses and 691 were completed and returned. Methods of data analysis included the use of SPSS in order to analyze demographic and other variables using inferential statistics and regression analysis. Regression analysis was conducted for dependent variables on job satisfaction and the group of items within that category. This analysis was used in an attempt to better understand the relationship between job satisfaction and the six aggregate constructs for nurse roles, relationships, support teams, personal feelings, daily routines and use of time. By utilizing these aggregate constructs the researchers were able to have more relevant comparisons.
This study was approved by the Human Assurance Committee of the primary researcher's university and the Institutional Review Board of the hospital prior to the commencement. Consent letters were given to each participant that explained the purpose of the study advised them of each of their rights as human subjects and solicited their participation. Return of the questionnaire provided consent. The researchers covered the issues of ethics appropriately in their research design.
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2011). Retrieved from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/survey/com2d1.cfm…[continue]
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