At the moment Latino students find it easy to seek for help from their family members and find so difficult to find the same help from members outside the family such as friends or the community. Since there is a great disparity between the Latino culture and the expectations of the United States educational system it is obvious that the Latino students require assistance to help them cope with this new culture which they can only get from those who are familiar with the new system; the Whites. Even though there are counseling services it has been noted that Latino students either underutilize them or never use them at all due to the lack of knowledge of their existence or not knowing the means of accessing them. This lack of access to such vital services can prevent them from gaining from the educational opportunities and ultimately leads to underachievement and high rates of dropout which makes formulation of programs that address the specific needs of these students necessary and these programs should cover both the students and their families. The best institutions that can assist these Latino students and their families are schools since the school counselors are in the best position to attend to their specific needs at the appropriate time.
In addition to the aforementioned programs, there are other programs that can be used to assist Latino students; one of such programs is the Submersion program which is characterized by lack of any exceptional program design. As they are known through history, they are classrooms where those students who are not native English speakers either 'sink or swim'. The other program is English as a Second Language (ESL) program which provides students with exceptional ESL instructions. These instructions are designed in such a way that they much their proficiency level and mostly offered by a resource teacher within some part of the day. In this program instructions are exclusively given in English and no native language is used (Arce, 2004).
The last program as pointed out by Arce (2004) is one known as Partial immersion or sheltered English programs which is closely related to the previous one only that it offers ESL under shelter and takes most part of the day. Unlike ESL program in this program the native language is sometimes used for purposes of clarifying some ideas or subject matter and this is mostly offered by paraprofessionals.
Graphical representation of some important data
Despite all these benefits of bilingual education the idea is still surrounded by so much controversy, different from other theories and pedagogies of education, this idea is related to the American history of anti-bilingualism and xenophobia which strongly indicated that for any individual to be American then they must use the one language-English and to fully embrace the American culture and values. This is the reverse of the idea in bilingual education which recognizes diverse cultures and languages and equates them to American culture and language. Therefore, in order to succeed in implementing the above discussed programs a lot of work has to be done which include convincing the Americans to accept and appreciate other cultures, only then will Latinos have an equal opportunity in any sector in the United States of America.
Alanis, I. & Rodriguez, M.A. (2008). Sustaining a dual language immersion program: Features of success. LLC: Taylor & Francis Group.
Arce, J. (2004). Latino bilingual teachers: The struggle to sustain an emancipator pedagogy in public schools, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education,17(2).
Collier, V.P. (1995) Acquiring a second language for school, Directions in Language & Education, 1(4) (Washington, DC, George Washington University, National
Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education).
Pew Hispanic Center (2005). Hispanics: A people in motion. Washington, DC: Pew Research
Fracasso, M. R, & Busch-Rossnagel, N.A. (1992). Parents and children of Hispanic origin. In M.E. Procidano & C.B. Fisher (Eds.), Contemporary families: A handbook for school professionals (pp. 83-98). New York: Teachers College Press.
Sondra, S. et al. (2006). Culturally responsive school counseling for Hispanic/Latino students and families: The need for bilingual school counselors. U.S.: American School Counselor Assn.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Census 2000 redistricting data (Pub. L. No. 94-171) summary file, matrices PL1, PL2, PL3, and PL4. Washington, DC: Author.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2003, January 21). Census Bureau releases population estimates by age,…