Leadership Style and Decision-Making Style 'Discussion and Results' chapter

Excerpt from 'Discussion and Results' chapter :

However this philosophy has been proved to be wrong. Besides a few traits like intuition and sensing, all the leadership traits involve our conscious decisions and behaviors. A person can adopt any leadership and decision making style to be effective and productive based on the work environment and the people he is working with. Here are some recommendations for the self-improvement with respect to leadership and decision making:

The leader should know self and his people. This helps develop a strong bond and reduces power distance.

As a leader, one is recommended to take suggestions from his people while making decisions. This will bring followers on the board and they will support the final decision.

The leader should neither totally rely on the subordinates for performing a task nor should he guide them nor supervise them closely through activities. There should be balanced supervision and autonomy.

It is suggested that the leader should increase his knowledge base about people as well as procedures. Hence he or she will be able to make more realistic decisions reducing chances of friction among goals and people.

References

Leadership Styles, (2013), Retrieved from:

http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm

Leadership questionnaire; E-Book-Browse, (n.d.), Retrieved from http://ebookbrowse.com/path-goal-leadership-questionnaire-pdf-d172552640

Northouse, P.G. (2013) Leadership: Theory and Practice 6th Ed

Path-Goal Theory of Leadership, (2013), Retrieved from:

http://www.changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/path_goal_leadership.htm

Psychodynamic Approach Survey, (n.d.), Retrieved from:

http://llpruden3.wordpress.com/about/assessments/psychodynamic-approach-survey/

Team Leadership Excellence, (2013), Retrieved from:

http://change4success.de/team-leadership-excellence-en.html

The Psychodynamic Approach, (2010), Retrieved from:

http://leadershiptheories.blogspot.com/2010/02/psychodynamic-approach.html

Appendix I

Leadership Style

"Leadership Styles" Questionnaire

Consider your own impression of the term "leadership." Based on your experiences, what is leadership?

Read the following statements, and then use scales below to indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree with each statement about leadership.

There is no right or wrong answers. The aim is to provide you with insight about how you define and view leadership styles.

Leadership Styles

Statements

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Employees need to be supervised closely or they are not likely to do their work.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Employees want to be a part of the decision-making process.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

In complex situations, leaders should let subordinates work problems out on their own.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

It is fair to say that most employees in the general population are lazy.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Providing guidance without pressure is the key to being a good leader.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Leadership requires staying out of the way of subordinates as they do their work.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

As a rule, employees must be given rewards or punishments in order to motivate them to achieve organizational objectives.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Most workers want frequent and supportive communication from their leaders.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

As a rule, leaders should allow subordinates to appraise their own work.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Most employees feel insecure about their work and need direction.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Leaders need to help subordinates accept responsibility for completing their work.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Leaders should give subordinates complete freedom to solve problems on their own.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The leader is the chief of the achievements of the members of the group.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

It is the leader's job to help subordinates find their "passion."

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

In most situations, workers prefer little input from the leader.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Effective leaders give orders and clarify procedures.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

People are basically competent and if given a task will do a good job.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

In general, it is best to leave subordinates alone.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Scoring

Add together the scores of items 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, and 16. These items measure authoritarian leadership. The authoritarian score is: __14

Add together the scores of items 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17. These items measure democratic leadership. The democratic score is: ____26

Add together the scores of items 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18. These items measure laissez-faire leadership. The laissez-faire score is: ____18

Score Interpretation

This questionnaire is designed to measure three common styles of leadership: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. By comparing your scores, you can determine which styles are most dominant and least dominant in your own style of leadership. For each of the three scores, the use the following rubric:

If the score is 26 or higher, it is in the very high range.

If the score is 21 to 25, it is in the high range.

If the score is 16 to 20, it is in the moderate range.

If the score is 11 to 15, it is in the low range.

If the score is 10 or less, it is in the very low range.

Source: Leadership questionnaire; E-Book-Browse, (n.d.)

Appendix II

Leadership Path-Goal

Instructions: This questionnaire contains questions about different styles of path-goal leadership. Indicate how often each statement is true of your own behavior.

Key: 1 = never 2 = hardly ever 3 = seldom 4 = occasionally

5 = often 6 = usually 7=always

__7__ 1. I let subordinates know what is expected of them.

__6__ 2. I maintain a friendly working relationship with subordinates.

__6__ 3. I consult with subordinates when facing a problem.

__6__ 4. I listen receptively to subordinates' ideas and suggestions.

__6__ 5. I inform subordinates about what needs to be done and how it needs to be done.

__6__ 6. I let subordinates know that I expect them to perform at their highest level.

__3__ 7. I act without consulting my subordinates.

__6__ 8. I do little things to make it pleasant to be a member of the group.

__2__ 9. I ask subordinates to follow standard rules and regulations.

__3__ 10. I set goals for subordinates' performance that are quite challenging.

__2__ 11. I say things that are hurtful to subordinates' personal feelings.

__5__ 12. I ask for suggestions from subordinates concerning how to carry out assignments.

__6__ 13. I encourage continual improvement in subordinates' performance.

__6__ 14. I explain the level of performance that is expected of subordinates.

__5__ 15. I help subordinates overcome problems that stop them from carrying out their tasks.

__2__ 16. I show that I have doubts about their ability to meet most objectives.

__5__ 17. I ask subordinates for suggestions on what assignments should be made.

__3__ 18. I give vague explanations of what is expected of subordinates on the job.

__6__ 19. I consistently set challenging goals for subordinates to obtain.

__5__ 20. I behave in a manner that is thoughtful of subordinates' personal needs.

Path-Goal Leadership Questionnaire

Response Sheet

1. Reverse the scores for items 7, 11, 16, and 18 using the following scale:

1 = 7, 2 = 6, 3 = 5, 4 = 4, 5 = 3, 6 = 2, and 7 = 1

Original score

New score

_3____ 7.

_5____ 7a.

__2__ 11.

__6__ 11a.

__2__ 16.

__6__ 16a.

__3__ 18.

__5__ 18a.

2. Record your scores in the columns below.

3. Add each column to determine your leadership style.

__7__ 1.

__6__ 2.

__6__ 3.

__6__ 6.

__6__ 5.

__6__ 8.

__6__ 4.

__3__ 10.

__2__ 9.

__6__ 11a.

__5__ 7a.

__6__ 13.

__6__ 14.

__5__ 15.

__5__ 12.

__6__ 16a.

__5__ 18a.

__5__ 20.

__5__ 17.

__6__ 19.

__26__ Total

__28__ Total

__27__ Total

__27__ Total

Directive style

Supportive style

Participative style

Achievement-oriented style

Scoring Interpretation

Directive style, a common score is 23; scores above 28 are considered high and scores below 18 are considered low.

Supportive style, a common score is 28; scores above 33 are considered high and scores below 23 are considered low.

Participative style, a common score is 21; scores above 26 are considered high and scores below 16 are considered low.

Achievement-oriented style, a common score is 19; scores above 24 are considered high and scores below 14 are considered low.

The scores you received on the path-goal questionnaire provide information about which style of leadership you use most often and which you use less frequently. In addition, these scores can be used to assess your use of each style relative to your use of the other styles.

Source: Leadership questionnaire; E-Book-Browse, (n.d.)

Appendix III

Leadership Authentic

Source: Leadership questionnaire; E-Book-Browse, (n.d.)

Appendix IV

Leadership Team Excellence/Collaborative

Source: Leadership questionnaire; E-Book-Browse, (n.d.)

Appendix V

Leadership Psychodynamic

Instructions: For each of the following eight sentences, rate the degree to which you believe it describes you on a scale of 1 to 6, as described in the key. The sentences are paired in such a way that your ratings for each pair should add up to 7 (e.g., if you rate one sentence with a 3, then the other…

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