In response to a learning needs assessment at the Samaritan Medical Center, this lesson plan focuses on an educational opportunity for the highest identified opportunity in terms of education needs among the nursing staff at the Center. Staff ranges from Nursing Assistants to Registered Nurses. A sample of 20 RNs and four LPNs were included in the assessment. The target audience for the lesson include RNs, LPNs, and Nursing Assistants at the Samaritan Medical Center.
Educational Need and Rationale
While generally useful traits such as leadership and communication were identified among needs for improvement, the focus of this lesson plan is on the more specific needs in terms of procedural knowledge. The majority of surveyed RNs, for example, noted that there was an absence of proper knowledge on orthopaedic and neurological procedures. They identified a high level of need in terms of adequate training to improve their knowledge on such procedures. The level of need for continuing education in terms of the professional services provided was also identified as high.
For this reason, the highest priority of educational need was identified as training on bedside handoff. The unit will be used as a pilot unit for this training focus. Bedside handoff is a very important part of nursing care and is therefore a highly important component of training. Indeed, to make the nursing program effective, additional information and training on this topic are a high priority.
Goals, Learner Outcomes, and Learning Objectives
In the light of the above, the goals of the lesson include highlighting important aspects of bedside handoff. The goals are to provide learners with both theoretical and practical input regarding bedside handoff and the best nursing practices within this topic.
In terms of learner outcomes, it is expected that learners will become well-versed regarding the theories behind bedside handoff. They will also be able to practice what they have learned by means of role play exercises, which will form the practical aspect of the learning session. In terms of their professional lives, it is expected that learners will be able to apply what they have learned directly to their practice with patients at the Samaritan Center.
Instructional Design Model, Learner Characteristics, Learning Theory
The instructional design model to be used is the ADDIE Model, which includes five components:
Analysis of the learning need and learners.
Design of the lesson plan.
Development of the lesson content.
Implementation of the lesson plan by means of instruction and practice.
Evaluation of learners by means of practical and theoretical assessment methods.
In terms of learner characteristics, Hayden (2009, p. 40) notes that these are important influencing factors in the education process. Ability, motivation, and desire to learn are three major factors that influence learning. Such factors can also influence the effectiveness of learning. Although the majority of survey participants indicated that they needed the intervention planned in this lesson, it is also important to determine the motivation and desire levels of any audience members who were not part of the survey in question.
Ability is another important factor that will influence the success of the learning intervention. The level of knowledge and skill should be adequately assessed to make the lesson sufficiently challenging, but also accessible to all participants.
Culture, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status can also influence learning. Since the group to be addressed in this lesson are already colleagues in a workplace that requires particular assigned tasks, it is not expected that culture, ethnicity or income level will be factors of concern. Age, however, may influence the willingness or ability of participants to benefit optimally from the lesson. This factor can be mitigated by determining the willingness of individual participants to take part in the learning opportunity. In the event of negativity, they could also be questioned regarding any factors that would make the session more acceptable for them.
It is expected that the group will enjoy working together, as they are already working in the same environment, and have developed a workplace culture that is conducive to effectiveness in their profession.
The educational theory to be used is adult education theory. Since all participants are adults with a particular educational level and ability, the content can be created in such a way as to cater for their particular abilities and needs. According to Vandeveer (2009, p. 193), adults in the learning environment are self-directed and problem centered. They have a need to learn useful information.
In recognition of this, the lesson is planned in response to identified needs among the adults working at the Samaritan Center. It is expected that they will find the information on bedside handoff useful, as it directly relates to their practice with patients.
1. Introduction to bedside handoff
2. Principles of excellence in bedside handoff
3. Common mistakes
4. Improving bedside handoff practice
5. Conclusion: Self-assessment; How do I improve my own practice? What have I learned?
Instructional Methods and Materials
Instructional methods and materials will be based upon both the nature and needs of learners as adults and the technologies available to impart information to them. Zwirn and Muehlenkord (2009, p. 347) emphasize the fundamental changes that have occurred in teaching and learning as a result of various influences. These include the changing demographic of learning, where adult learners are recognized as self-directed learners with particular needs and abilities that they bring to the classroom. As such, specific methods are to supplement more traditional learning methods, such as lecturing.
Hence, after the lecture on bedside handoff, where its basic principles and methods are introduced, the brainstorming session will include input from participants themselves, where they creatively expand and comment on the content that has been presented.
The role playing activity will include the participants' best method of bedside handoff, with an opportunity for participants to comment on each group's performance and premises, including suggestions for improvement.
Instructional materials will make use of a variety of media, ranging from the traditional to computerized and online media. There will be three types of instructional materials:
a. Key points presented in the lecture.
b. Articles about best practices relating to bedside handoff.
c. Instructions relating to brainstorming and role playing
2. Computerized Media
a. Power Point Presentation to supplement the lecture.
b. Graphics such as charts and tables.
c. Photos to demonstrate the theories and facts discussed.
3. Online Media
a. YouTube videos to demonstrate best practice as related to bedside reporting.
According to Bourke and Ihrke (2009, p. 391), there are various evaluation methods, each of which has a specific purpose in terms of determining whether material has been internalized. Three types of basic evaluation will be included in the course.
First, a lesson evaluation will be performed by all participants. This will occur by means of a Lickert scale questionnaire provided to each participant. The purpose of this evaluation is to determine whether administrators have offered participants the learning opportunity they craved, to determine what must be improved, and what must be repeated, and how often, in the future. This evaluation is also important in terms of determining whether the specified goals of the lesson have been met.
Formative evaluation occurs during the lesson and identifies progress in terms of what has been learned. As mentioned, this evaluation will occur on an informal level, with group role play at the center of the process. Groups will consist of two to four members each, with participants role playing the various parts involved in bedside handoff. The audience, made up of the lecturer and lesson participants, will comment on each group's effort, asking questions, offering insight, and determining the progress level of each group of learners.
The rationale for this evaluation is to determine whether learners have internalized the material presented via the lecture and Power Point presentations. After the group presentations, YouTube videos will be shown to stimulate further conversation and self-evaluation among learners. This type of evaluation lends itself well to the adult learner, since they will value the opportunity to offer not only opinions on the work of others, but also on their own learning and progress during the lesson.
Finally, summative evaluation will occur after the completion of the lesson. Summative evaluations are usually performed to determine the success of the lesson in terms of helping learners acquiring the desired information. For a lesson like this, such an evaluation is of particular importance, since learners themselves have expressed a need for the information presented in the lesson. Specifically, the shape this final evaluation will take is a minute paper, in which students will be expected to highlight a certain aspect of bedside reporting, research it, and make critical observations about it.
The rationale for this evaluation is to offer learners the opportunity to stimulate their own creative thinking by means of independent research. In nursing, independent research is a highly important component of professional development. Hence, the request for more information and learning opportunities can be supplemented by encouraging learners towards more independent…