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Likewise, the therapist in front of the mirror is expecting a credible "performance" that illuminates and furthers the therapeutic process (Johnson et al., 1997).
Solution-focused therapy encourages all participants to attend to their own wants and needs, not just those of their partners. Depending on the goal, therapists recommend that each participant take charge of caring for oneself as well as appreciating how his or her own actions influence others (Dermer et al., 1998).
Dermer et al. (19918) went further to express that solution-focused methods encourage clients to discuss ones desires and wishes at length but to do so in positive terms (such as through the "miracle question). Positive insights are encouraged, but negative insights are not. When clients complain and blame, the job of the therapist, is to redirect the conversation back toward searching for exceptions and use solution talk, rather than excluding insights, they selectively reinforced.
Solution-focused therapists' belief in people's competence may also be expressed with language. Therapists are well aware of the power of language. Dermer et al. (1998) remarked that therapist use exceptional (looking for exceptions to the problem) and presuppositional (assuming people have the ability to change) language to emphasize clients strengths, competencies, and areas of expertise. Therapists also use language to foster an internal locus of control in clients, so that clients take full credit for change.
There are instances where therapists may not have the tools necessary to deal with a particular situation. Solution-focused therapy does not provide a therapist with a mechanism for challenging stereotyped behaviors, Solution -focused therapy does not comment on therapist shopping or sexual boundary violations. Solution-focused therapists are expected to follow professional codes of ethical practice prohibiting sexual relationships (Dermer et al., 1998).
Even though there have been cons to this theory King & Kellock (2002) remarked that through their research they concluded that their study provided an overview of the rationale and operational procedures used to enable Solution-focused therapy to be provided to children and their families, on a basis that acknowledged the severity of the problems for the child and for the family. This approach addressed the issue of how a response from Psychological Services could be if allowed sufficient client time to be given to the counseling. It addressed the need to set aside a dedicated team of psychologists using the approach for the benefit of the client base as a whole. The results from the evaluation showed that clients found the approach useful in helping them to find solutions to their problems. The findings indicated that the number of sessions provided to each family (average, 6.8 sessions) was broadly in line with other researched (McKeel, 1996) and indicate the approach is cost-effective for both the client group and for the Psychological Service. For clients responding to the evaluation questionnaire, 67% in total felt 'the problem had improved a lot' or 'had ended'. Ninety-four per cent of responding clients reported they would recommend the approach to others'. The setting up of a solution-focused therapy team required time allocations to tasks within the Psychological Service to be reviewed and re-prioritized.
Dermer et al. (1998) concluded by stating that solution-focused therapy emphasizes symptom relief, highlights strengths, and assumes competency. They went further to conclude that Solution-focused therapists understand their influence of pathologizing language on clients and its influence on how clients view their situation. Therapists endeavor to reframe situations in workable, solvable terms with the context of the client strengths.
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