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Motivation in Sport
Take a look at the animal world and you will find the proof that game is an inherent feature of the virtually evaluated species. This has an important part in literacy and evolution. We witness many a mock fights between kittens and pups so as to enhance their stamina, speed, tolerance and will. Through such hatred free games, they rub their hands for survival and satisfy their urge for challenge and ecstasy. The human species is not just a species of animals based on reason. There is an unquenchable thirst in the humans for wisdom, truth and joy. These spiritual features are the ones which differentiate human beings from animals. In the proceeding development of human civilization, sports and games have had a part in revealing the human ability.
At each and every phase of the evolutionary process, sport has had an important part in giving a hand to enhance, make a definition of, and test newly accumulated physical, psychic and social skills. As the evolution went on from food gatherers to hunters, sport and play no longer were just "fight or flight" intricacy. They turned out to be the preparatory training which would set the young hunters for hunt. Youths were the disciples of the elders of a community, to rub their hands for the day when they would have to be servile. It was during this course of time that the initial team sports came into being, which was resultantly due to collective attempt in stalking, trapping, killing and commuting. As time went on and there was a growth of population, tussles arose between tribes over areas, herds, property, esteem and due to fears that existed mutually. (McCormick, 2000, p.2).
As there was a tussle between tribes, the sporting field turned into a practice ground for the field of battle. Those who came out with flying colors in the play that had a semblance to the warriors the sport fields were armed for survival and achievement in the battle. Sports sharpened the skills and mind of the warriors and they were ready for anything. As also the battle for survival, it turned out to be the means for the youth for change to the adulthood. Young men proved the worth and thus their ability to save the lives of their people. Possibly during this phase the initial attempt for spectator sports arose, as the community gathered around to witness who would turn out to be the achievers. Once this phase was reached, there is no proof to demonstrate that there was any mentionable advancement in the theory or the purport of sports for many thousands of years, except for the rare introduction of new weapons and martial arts. (McCormick, 2000, p.3).
The year 776 B.C. It served as an important milestone. The first and the foremost Olympic Games were celebrated at Olympia, in Greece, taking into regard Zeus (Greek god of the gods). During the time of the games, warfare was suspended and duration of divine tranquility was declared. Any how, the games that were contested were still examinations of combat arts: wrestling, javelin, discus, archery, shot put, marathon, boxing etc. Equestrian and boating sports were also enhanced roughly around the same period in different segments of the world. The team, ball and vehicle sports which we are accustomed today are the discoveries of current times. Here we may regard volleyball, tennis, squash, badminton, handball, surfing, hockey, skiing, cycling, basketball, baseball, football, rugby, cricket, motor-cross, auto racing etc. Polo, lacrosse and bowling are on the basis of ancient regional games, while the basic essence of the athletics has been among us for a thousand years. (Horn, 1992, p.1).
The application of weapons in sporting contests has given a fascination to those with an inherent aptitude for the military arts and hunting. These are comprehensive of trap and skeet, archery, fencing and target shooting. However, with the start of the noble idea of Olympia 2700 years past sport has become increasingly variant from warfare. In an ambiance of much more wealth and tranquility, the philosophy turned out to be "Sports for the purpose of each particular sport." From that very time to the current times, the athletes have used their body and mind, tussled to be the beset, to rule themselves, break the record, achieve the medal and assume the laurels of victory. (Horn,1992, p.1).
We have witnessed how sport has developed from a simple exam for survival skills to training for tussle, hunting and adulthood, then to an occasion of celebrating skills, strength and tolerance and finally, in recent decades, to a highly institutionalized organization with no question of social interests. In the past sport has rarely been used wrongly for the quenching of the thirst of the ruling class of the community, anyhow it has overall played a positive role. Like writers and mystics, athletes donate an instance of the possibilities of human existence in a higher role both mentally and morally. As of now the sport must be freed from the chains of materialistic pleasure to regain its exhausted position in the vicinities of human society. Sport demonstrated our ability for a perfect build, strong mind, and collective attempts. As we are crossing the gateways into a new phase of spiritual renovation and awakening may sport, have its true meaning and importance in real life.
What makes the sport performers single minded and persistent in training and competition and in crossing hurdles to achievements during performance while others, though talented, evade difficult situations, perhaps make a pretension as if injured to evade a failure, or not adhere to a training schedule. Why is there an involvement by some people in the exercise irrespective of any weather while others are sluggish and find excuses not to exercise in spite of the awareness of the facts that it could enhance their health? The feature of self-motivation is an intricate one that has much impact in this regard. Motivation is essential for playing and increasing the athletic skills. This is what makes the athlete to effectively get a talent through long and strenuous practices. The inspiration progress of individual contestant is determined by individual differences like psychological behavior, type of sports subject, and the stage of mastery. (Hellandsig, 1998, p.27).
In the article "what is motivation" by Karlene Sugarman, published in 1989 we understand that "motivation is the psychological attribute that inculcates to work hard." Motivation can be portrayed as the reason for behavior. As per the Webster's New World Dictionary the meaning of a motive related with motivation is given as some inner drive, impulse, intention, and etc. that make a person to do something or act in a certain way (p. 886). There are two forms of motivation, which are strongly associated as mentioned in Paul Bernhardt's article in features magazine "Researchers communicate two types of motivation, extrinsic and intrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is on the basis of inherent rewards. He went on to conclude that "Intrinsic motivation arises from within. When there is a question from somebody as to why the task was done, the answer could be because I like that. That is obviously intrinsic motivation." (Pelletier et.al. 1995, p.35) Extrinsic motivation on the other hand is on the basis of the solid or clear rewards. And goal-setting is crucial for motivation.
Let us now look at the studies being made in this field. Intrinsic motivation is the access to prizes that are internal. Extrinsic motivation is on the basis of receiving physical or outward gains. Bernhardt in 1996 and Sugarman in 1999 have made a statement that there was no clarity in difference between the two motivations for instance, a performer can gain access to intrinsic rewards via an external reward, or a performer may receive satisfaction from an intrinsic source of motivation. It is an agreement that this juncture of ideas is very important for achievement in any action, the combined efforts of which give performance that is satisfactory. Always when motivation is derived completely good satisfaction can be produced, it is as we gain something is provided that the performer will reap their level best. The replica is for the extrinsic motivation. (Biddle & Brooke, 1992, p.251)
When the motivation is alone for a good performance may occur, but when there is no enjoying of the activity then the performance is not as high as it should be. Motivation of both of the varieties is prior when we take part in every action, as if there is no motivation if there is no satisfaction on our part. (Biddle & Brooke, 1992, p.251) There are many studies performed which demonstrate that adults athletes with high level of confidence in the sport would be in possession of better concentration, game plans, healthy emotions, tempo control, and performance (Chi, 1996, p.51). As it were, the association that exists between sport confidence and performance should be an important issue for psychologists in sports to analyze. Actually, sport confidence can be a varying…[continue]
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