Multi-Regression Analysis Children's Norm for Research Paper

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Overall outcome showed that boys had stronger grip as compared to girls.

Table 4 shows the value of grip strength compared to BMI and regression equation for both boys and girls. Results shows that Grip strength increased with an increase in BMI for both boys and girls (0.0001)in the BMI range of 11 to 16kg/m shows that boys had a stronger grip strength than girls.(p<.0001).

Regression equation for right arm grip was formulated using the body mass index. The regression equation was as shown below:

For boys: 1.81B-11.55(5yx=1.48, r=0.95)

For girls: 1.71B-10.69(5yx=2.02, r=0.90)



The outcome revealed that the 'mean' of the maximum grip strength in school children increased with chronological increase in age of the children .this outcome was the same as grip strength values reported in literature i.e. 4,5,12,13.

The increase in the mean of maximum grip strength becomes important when a comparison of a single value of a given age is done. The outcome also revealed that in some cases, a significant difference existed in the 'mean' maximum grip strength between the right or left arms of boys as compared to those of girls within the same age group. This finding does not give a back up to the statement that boys of all age groups are stronger than girls in their grip strength.

Research study revealed that where boys were found to be stronger than girls, the difference in the extent was expected to reach 61% by the age of 18.There is emphasis that the strength difference between the sexes is majorly seen for the right arm. Physical performance in Ethiopian subjects was not optimal, Poor nutrition was termed to influence performance; the influence was as a result of:

Permanent stunting growth as a consequence of severe malnutrition in early childhood.

Continuous inadequate food which caused low energy state of Ethiopian children.

The expectation was that the grip strength will improve with the improvement nutritional status. There was grip strength increase with weight of the children, with boys found to be stronger than girls under the same weight range in their right arm grip strength.Chatterjee, et al. showed that grip strength was positively correlated with weight which reveals (r=0.87 and r=0.88 left arms),and height (r=0.9 for both arms).

The relationship of strength to body size and the fact that boys have a slight size advantage over girls' aid in explaining the differences in grip strengths between the two sexes, also since body size is related with age then the increase in grip strength with age can be related to an increase in body size.

The significant outcome of grip strength on a three-year gap period can be explained using the velocity of growth in body size in different age groups.

Group strength comparison with weight and height in research study can aid in the assessment of physical maturity.Baccous et al. suggested the use of height and grip strength as a practical non-invasive method to classify physical maturity in boys.

The regression equation formulated for right arm grip strength vs. BMI can be useful in predicting strength from BMI measurements. The instrument advisable for use is hand dynamometer, it is a simple non-invasive instrument, more so, it is reliable and its concurrent validity is conformed with grip strengths relation to upper muscle cross sectional area and physical performance


With the use of hand dynamometer, grip strength measurement can be made use of for a wider physiological and clinical application. The research study revealed the normal mean values and the regression equation that can enable one to predict the right arm grip strength from BMI of children, this plays an important role since it assist physicians as well as basic science researchers in this area of specialization. The research study also aid in identifying the cause of the mean differences such as malnutrition, inadequate food which leads to struggle in identification of solutions to curb the differences.


1. Backous DD, Farrow JA, Friedl KE. Assessment of pubertal maturity in boys, using height and grip strength. J Adolesc Health Care. Nov. 1990;11(6):497-500.

2. Pincus T., Brooks RH, Callahan LF. Reliability of grip strength, waking time and button test performed according to standard test protocol. J Rheumatol Jul. 1991; 18(7): 997-1000.

3. Mathiowetz V., Wiemer DM, Federman SM. Grip and pinch strength: norms for 6- to 19-year-olds. Am J. Occup Ther Oct. 1986; 40(10):705-11.

4. Newman DG, Pearn J., Barnes a., Young CM, Kehoe M., Newman J. Norms for hand grip strength. Arch Dis Child May 1984;59 (5):453-9.

5. Robertson a., Deitz J. A description of grip strength in preschool children. Am J. Occup Ther Oct 1988;42(10):647-52.

6. Kallman DA, Plato CC, Tobin JD. The role of muscle mass in the age related decline of grip strength: cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives. J Gerontol May 1990;45(3):M82-8.

7. Lam KS, Grossman a., Bouloux P., Drury PL, Besser GM. Effect of an opiate antagonist on the responses of circulating cathecolamines and the renin -aldosterone system to acute…[continue]

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