Music Therapy in Autistic Children Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

Melanie's frequency of inappropriate behavior was not consistent; she experienced unpredictable increases and decreases in hair pulling, screaming, scratching, and tantrum behavior.

The study occurred in a self-contained classroom for children and youth with autism, which was housed within the special education department of a large state medical center. The classroom included four students, one certified classroom teacher, and three paraprofessionals. Students received one-on-one instruction; group instruction; speech-language, music, art, and adaptive physical education; and occupational therapy

An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of rhythmic entrainment as a calming technique. The first and third phases of the study were baseline conditions during which Melanie interacted in her structured classroom environment as was typical for her schedule. This included walking into the classroom, hang'rag up her backpack, reviewing her daily schedule, eating breakfast, checking her schedule, going to the rest-room, rechecking her schedule, and participating in calendar time. During the intervention phases, Melanie's schedule remained the same, while the entrainment music played on the tape recorder for 20 minutes. The volume was set on 3, with the loudest setting of 10 and the quietest setting of 0. Data collection stopped when Melanie left the classroom (i.e., to use the bathroom) and resumed when she returned. Music ceased to play after 20 minutes of data collection. Data were collected by both the first author and the classroom paraprofessional on the frequency of head jerking and screaming each morning for 20 consecutive minutes during the class opening session. Before data collection on head jerking and screaming began, the behaviors were operationally defined and interrater reliability was achieved between the first author and the classroom paraprofessional with 100% accuracy over five sessions.

Interobserver reliability was calculated with each interaction component as an individual data point using the following formula: agreements/agreements plus disagreements times 100. Interobserver reliability was calculated as 100%.

Melanie's head-jerking behavior was stable during the first 7-day baseline condition, with a mean occurrence of 49 and a range of 48 to 50. During the first intervention phase, head jerking appeared to decrease, with only one incident above the mean of the first intervention phase. The mean occurrence of head jerking across the 7-day intervention phase was 29, with a range of 6 to 93. The second baseline appeared erratic. During the 7-day span of the second baseline, the mean occurrence of Melanie's head jerking was 57, with a range of 7 to 94. The second intervention phase showed that all data points were below the mean of the first and second baselines, with a mean occurrence of 13 and a range of 3 to 43.

Melanie's screams appeared stable during the first 7-day baseline condition (with a mean occurrence of 5 and a range of 3 to 10). The screams decreased overall during the first intervention phase. Six of the seven data points were below the mean of the first baseline condition. One data point revealed a much higher number of screams. Melanie's mean occurrence of screams was 3, with a range of 2 to 14. The second baseline showed a similarly erratic pattern to the second head-jerking baseline. The mean occurrence of screams was 10, with a range of 4 to 17. During the second baseline phase, six of the seven data points were below the means of the first and second baseline phases, with a mean of 3 and a range of 0 to 15. Figure 2 shows the complete results of the screaming intervention.

Another study involving the observation of autistic and Ausberger's syndrome children between the ages of 5 and 12 concluded that music provides an alternative means of communication for those who are nonverbal, and for others it can help to organize verbal communication. Music can improve self-esteem, as the child is given an activity he or she can potentially excel in. Finally, playing a musical instrument gives persons with autism a typical means for engaging in social interaction in school and in the community, centered on their strength. (Shore, 2002)

Conclusion

In conclusion, researchers agree that there needs to be more research done on the effect of music therapy on autistic children. The case studies revealed tentatively established a link between music therapy and the reduction of disruptive behavior -- head-jerking and screaming; for example -- however, more research is needed to established positively the effects of music therapy on autism in children.

References

Akerley, M.S. (1992). The last bird. In E. Schopler and G.B. Mesibov (Eds.). High functioning individuals with autism (pp. 266-275). New York: Plenum Press.

Alvin, J. & a. Warwick (1991) Music Therapy for the Autistic Child.: Oxford University: Oxford.

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC:

Barron, J., and Barron, S. (1992). There's a boy in here. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Berard, G. (1993). Hearing equals behavior. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing

Blakely, M.K. (1992, October). Voyage to a small planet. Mirabella, 78-82.

Courchesne, E., Townsend, J., Akshoomoff, N.A., Saitoh, O. Yeung-Courchesne, R., Lincoln, a.J., James, H.E., Hass, R.H., Schreibman, L., and Lau, L. (1994). Impairment in shifting attention in autistic and cerebellar patients. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108(5), 848-865.

Courchesne, E., Townsend, J., and Chase, C. (1995). Neurodevelopmental principles guide research on developmental psychopathologies. In D. Cicchetti and D.J. Cohen (Eds.) Developmental psychopathology, Vol. I (pp. 195-226). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Dewey, M. (1991). Living with Asperger syndrome. In U. Frith (Ed.). Autism and Asperger Syndrome, 184-206. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Donnellan, a.M., Sabin, L.A., and Majure, L.A. (1992). Facilitated communication: Beyond the quandary to the question. Topics in Language Disorders, 12(4), 69-82.

Duchan, J. (1986). Learning to describe events. Topics in Language Disorders, 6(4), 27-36.

Duchan, J. And Palermo, J. (1982). How autistic children view the world. Topics in Language Disorders, 83, 11-15.

Frith, U. (1991). Autism and Asperger syndrome. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Grandin, T. (1992). An inside out view of autism. In E. Schopler & G.B. Mesibov (eds.), High functioning individuals with autism (pp. 105-126). New York: Plenum Press.

Grandin, T. (1995). Thinking in pictures. New York: Bantam Books

Grandin, T., and Scariano, M.M. (1986). Emergence: Labeled autistic. Novato, CA: Arena.

Happe, K. (1991). The autobiographical writings of three Asperger syndrome adults: problems with interpretation and implications for theory. In U. Frith (Ed.). Autism and Asperger Syndrome, 207-242. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Monti, R. (1985). Music therapy in a therapeutic nursery. Music Therapy, 5(1), 22-27.

Orr, T.J.; Myles, B.S. (1998) the Impact of Rhythmic Entertainment on a Person with Autism.. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental DisabilitiesVol. 13 Issue 3, p163-164.

Park, C. (1982). The siege. Boston: Little Brown and Company.

Park, C. (1992). Autism into art: A handicap transfigured. In E. Schopler and G.B. Mesibov (Eds.). High functioning individuals with autism (pp. 250-259). New York: Plenum Press.

Rutter: Special Education, vol. LVI, no. 11, p. 19.

Sellin, B. (1995). I don't want to be inside me anymore. New York: Basic Books.

Shore, Stephen M. (2002) the Language of Music: Working with Children on the Autism Spectrum Journal of Education,

Vol. 183 Issue 2, p 97-109.

Sinclair, J. (1992). Bridging the gaps: An inside out view of autism (or, do you know what I don't know?). In E. Schopler and G.B. Mesibov (Eds.). High functioning individuals with autism (pp. 294-302). New York: Plenum Press.

Thaut, M.H. (1984). A music therapy treatment model for autistic children. Music Therapy Perspectives, 1(4), 7-13.

Orr, Tracy Jo; Myles, (1998). The Impact of Rhythmic Entertainment on a Person with Autism.by Brenda Smith. Focus on Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities, 3, p163-167.

Toigo, D.A. (1992). Autism: Integrating a personal perspective with music therapy practice. Music Therapy Perspectives, 10(1), 13-20.

Tomatis, a. (1991). The conscious ear: My life of transformation through listening. Barrytown, NY: Station Hill Press.Townsend, J. & Courchesne, E. (1994). Parietal damage and narrow "spotlight" spatial attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 6(3), 220-232.

Toolan, P.G. & Coleman, S.Y. (1994). Music therapy, a description of progress: Engagementand avoidance in. ve people with learning disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 38, 433-444.

Williams, D. (1992). Nobody, nowhere. New York: Times Books

Williams, D.…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"Music Therapy In Autistic Children" (2005, June 23) Retrieved December 5, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/music-therapy-in-autistic-children-65099

"Music Therapy In Autistic Children" 23 June 2005. Web.5 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/music-therapy-in-autistic-children-65099>

"Music Therapy In Autistic Children", 23 June 2005, Accessed.5 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/music-therapy-in-autistic-children-65099

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Music Therapy Charms to Soothe

    Music is sound, which enters the outer ear and passes through the middle ear into the inner ear and the brain by means of electrical energy. In the brain, it can generate motor responses, draw emotions, release hormones and trigger higher-order processes. The brain develops its response as it perceives the sound. If a loud sound creates fright, calm music can soothe. Records on music therapy date as far back

  • Music Therapy it Has Long

    However, this was when the musical elements that were so deeply rooted into my belief system, into my very soul started to appear and I began to clearly recognize that it was possible to pursue the existence of something even stronger and deeper in the world of art, more specifically in the world created by sounds. Possessing both a keen ability to observe and a very strong aptitude to recall

  • Autism Is a Developmental Disorder as it

    Autism is a developmental disorder as it is marked with pervasive and severe impairment revolving around areas of development such as communication, imagination, reciprocal interaction and behavior. The diagnostic criteria for autism as incorporated by the DSM IV TR includes symptoms such as impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors like eye contact, gestures, bodily postures during the normal routine social interaction, the inability to form good peer relationships, delay

  • Autism if a Man Does

    " Presentation of new tasks accompanied by old tasks promotes the child to target behaviors quicker. Letting the child chose the items of stimulus is another motivational tool. Self-motivation and self-management teach the child the consequences associated with their actions or behaviors. Self-management involves: 1. Choosing a specific behavior to target, such as aggression, hygiene, or verbal communication with others 2. Teaching the child to recognize when he/she behaves appropriately. Do not

  • Dance Therapy to Help an

    " Suzi Tortora, Ed.D.,a certified movement analyst and dance therapist contends that when a parent or caregiver understands his/her child's nonverbal expressions, he can more effectively help them improve their socialization, as well as manage their tantrums. In her therapy sessions, Dr. Tortora implements dance therapy to mirror the type and emotional quality of an autistic child's movements. This helps the child relate to her instead of reverting into hi/her private,

  • Music on Brain and Emotions the Effect

    Music on Brain and Emotions The Effect of Music on the Brain and Emotions The study of human's mental state on subjection to music has been a research subject to many with interest. Over the past decade, interconnection between human's physical and mental strength and music has been subject to research with a number of positive outcomes. These research endeavors suggest that music exhibits the healing power in certain elements, in

  • Music on Vocabulary Competence Writing Reading Comprehension

    Music on Vocabulary Competence, Writing, Reading Comprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School EFFECTIVENESS OF MUSIC ON VOCABULARY The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary Competence, Writing, Reading Comprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words


Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved