National Interest as a key determinant in Foreign Policy
National Interest and Foreign Policy
National Interest Defined:
The national interest is, very simply, the objectives of a country ranging from the macro goals i.e. economy, military to the micro goals like social use cyber space. National interest is an integral part of international relations as it is a concept based out of the realist school of though. This will be discussed in more detail in the paper.
Foreign Policy Defined:
Foreign policy, very simply, is the strategy that guides all international dealings and associations of a country
When dealing with national interest, one has to wonder about the degree to which domestic politics is vital for the comprehension of that country's foreign policy. Domestic politics is not of immense significance; this has been depicted by an eminent assumption related to structural realism, global association. The systemic vigour of the global supremacy division propels a country's foreign policy formulation over the domestic politics, as mentioned by structural realists. Hence, on the basis of this presumption it can be explicated that a foreign policy is influenced by external milieu. An eminent learned personality has mentioned even before the Cold War that realism seems to be the solitary and vital constituent in our logical wallet (Walt, 1998, pg. 43) for comprehending global politics. However, recent discoveries related to democratic harmony has propelled eminent learned personalities to deduce that domestic politics is a vital constituent in the formulation of a country's foreign policy (Souva, 2005).
The discussion associated to discerning the significance of domestic political constituents on global associations is vital when the focus is to segregate the chief casual methodologies pertaining to a set of occurrences, discerning the chief inspiration of the political leaders, and precisely scrutinizing calamity negotiation conditions. For example, if structural realism is precise then policy formulators should accentuate competences and equilibrium of influence in the process of negotiation with an opposition. Nonetheless, if domestic political dialogues are more astute and intuitive, then the policy formulators initially require comprehending the domestic condition of the opponent nation and based on that formulate their own foreign policy (Souva, 2005).
Responding to the query associated to the vital nature of domestic politics is exigent for a couple of motives. Foremost what reckons as a domestic political elucidation of foreign policy hinges on an implied distinction to elucidations that are not domestic or political (Fearon, 1998, 291). It is not adequate to explicate that a domestic-level constituent is rationally considerable in explicating that national political elucidations supplant systemic elucidations, while a few systemic elucidations entail domestic-level constituents (Souva, 2005).
Secondly, majority of the investigations has not utilized apposite statistical experimentations for scrutinizing diverse and deviating abstract representations. The customary technique for judging non-experimented representations is to coalesce each and every constituent in to a solitary representation and then determine which of the elucidations are noteworthy. As mentioned by Clarke (2001, 2003) this methodology is an abstract form of judging non-experimented representations and it is unbeneficial to progressing scientific comprehension. Alternatively, investigators should commence a "three-cornered brawl" (Lakatos, 1970, 115), judging the diverse and deviating representations analogous to one another along with the facts, and after that scrutinizing these diverse representations by utilizing apposite statistical experimentation methodology. Essentially, investigation conducted by Clarke specifies that the verification in opposition to realism . . . is distended (Clarke, 2001, 724). Realist representations have the tendency of surpassing their opponents.
A technique to scrutinize analogous domestic political and systemic assumptions is to comprehend the condition and position of the political atmosphere. It is a universal phenomenon that a nation is always thoughtful for its safety from any peril or intimidation; hence the political personalities and figures should always be considerate when formulating a foreign policy because it serves as a roadmap to tackle associations in a global spectrum. This abstract standpoint has a representation in American political milieu: two presidency assumptions proposed by Wildavsky's (1966). Wildavsky mentioned that on the subject of foreign policy the president seems to gain a bilateral buttress due to the fact that global milieu persuades Congress to take an opposite stance to that of the president. As discussed by structural realists' the stoppage of political leanings at the water's periphery regarding the foreign policy assumption is a prime example of this, and in such conditions two-presidency is precisely the subject which should be explicated (Souva, 2005).
Nonetheless, in modern times, the two-presidency assumption has been confronted. It is mentioned that preceding the termination of the Vietnam War there might have been occurrences of two-presidency assumption, and foreign policy subjects has been dictated by political leanings since that phase (Meernik, 1993; Prins, 2001). Regardless of these assertions, I have to mention that not a single investigation has adequately scrutinized the political leaning assumptions and it has judged this assumption in the light of the systemic realist ideology.
I have also scrutinized the congressional foreign policy and the global association manuscripts. This scrutiny recommends a couple of prevalent and contending representations of bilateral political leanings in the subject of foreign policy voting, a domestic political representation and a systemic realist representation. After that, I have experimented with the contending representations by scrutinizing the activities of the American House of Representatives. Whilst, preceding investigations have judged these assumptions by scrutinizing solitary constituents, I have judged them by analyzing the representations by means of a non-experimented representation methodology. The pragmatic investigations have depicted that the domestic political representation supplants the systemic realist representation. It is advisable that the priority should be given to the domestic political constituents rather than to the structural influential constituents, if the aim is to comprehend the nature of those constituents which instigate global associations (Souva, 2005).
Theoretical Perspectives: Systemic Realism vs. National Interest
Two kinds of domestic and systemic political assumptions have been discerned by Fearon (1998). S1- is a kind of systemic theory which illustrates nations as united and logical performers. The systemic theory of this particular kind is common and might incorporate component-level traits. S2- is the other kind of systemic theoretic assumptions which also accentuates nations as united and logical performers, although this kind does not incorporate component-level traits to explicate communication amidst nations. Waltz's (1979) structural realism has been discerned by S2. D1- is a kind of domestic political theory which responds to S1, by mentioning that nations are non-united performers along with domestic politics is the rationale due to which suboptimal foreign policy formulation arises. D2- is the other form of domestic political assumption that responds to S2, by mentioning that nations are non-united performers and relies on component-level traits.
The impending ideology of the above categorization accentuates that the domestic political assumptions of D2 might be analogous to the systemic theoretic assumptions of S1, due to the fact that the latter might incorporate component-level traits. Hence, as a deduction it is not adequate to elucidate that a domestic constituent is statistically noteworthy to discern that domestic politics is vital, for a few systemic theories for national interest can entail domestic constituents. Alternatively, the prime dissimilarity amidst S1 and D2 theoretic assumptions is the notion that the component-level constituents instigate a suboptimal foreign policy and national interest strategy. Therefore, a much more reliable methodology is to accentuate on the nature of the representations which explicate a particular reliant constituent rather than on the solitary variables, when judging domestic-political and systemic representations of national interest and foreign policy. On the basis of this assumption, I have illustrated the congressional national interest and foreign policy voting manuscripts to explicate contending domestic-political and systemic realist representations of national interest and foreign policy political leaning (Souva, 2005).
A Systemic Realist design of the National Interest and Foreign Policy Voting
When dealing with the national interest and forigen policy notions, it is first important to know what are the precise stimuli required by the nations from the systemic realist standpoint. The answer is simply -- security. Albeit the systemic realism accentuates on nations as prime performers in global politics, the micro foundation of the assumption speculates that any person when encountering an analogous condition will perform in analogous conduct i.e. wherever agents and agencies are conjoined by vigour and opposition as a replacement for influence and regulation (Waltz, 1979, 117). The common insinuations of the above mentioned assumptions of the political leaning activity and politics are atypical in their involvement in the national interest strategies and foreign policy paradigms (Souva, 2005).
The rationales for this dual action towards national interest and foreign policy are: foremost, every person will perform analogous computation concerning the methodology of formulating a national interest policy that complements the foreign policy (Waltz, 1979, 117). Policy location does not instigate from insularity disquiet as far as the national interest policy is concerned. Moreover, computation founded by these stresses can ascertain the formulation of those policies which will be of immense magnitude for a nation, internally and, in the long run, internationally (Waltz, 1979, 117). Secondly, interior squabbling, or political…