National Interest as a Key Determinants in Foreign Policy Internationally Essay

Download this Essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Essay:

National Interest as a key determinant in Foreign Policy

National Interest and Foreign Policy

National Interest Defined:

The national interest is, very simply, the objectives of a country ranging from the macro goals i.e. economy, military to the micro goals like social use cyber space. National interest is an integral part of international relations as it is a concept based out of the realist school of though. This will be discussed in more detail in the paper.

Foreign Policy Defined:

Foreign policy, very simply, is the strategy that guides all international dealings and associations of a country

When dealing with national interest, one has to wonder about the degree to which domestic politics is vital for the comprehension of that country's foreign policy. Domestic politics is not of immense significance; this has been depicted by an eminent assumption related to structural realism, global association. The systemic vigour of the global supremacy division propels a country's foreign policy formulation over the domestic politics, as mentioned by structural realists. Hence, on the basis of this presumption it can be explicated that a foreign policy is influenced by external milieu. An eminent learned personality has mentioned even before the Cold War that realism seems to be the solitary and vital constituent in our logical wallet (Walt, 1998, pg. 43) for comprehending global politics. However, recent discoveries related to democratic harmony has propelled eminent learned personalities to deduce that domestic politics is a vital constituent in the formulation of a country's foreign policy (Souva, 2005).

The discussion associated to discerning the significance of domestic political constituents on global associations is vital when the focus is to segregate the chief casual methodologies pertaining to a set of occurrences, discerning the chief inspiration of the political leaders, and precisely scrutinizing calamity negotiation conditions. For example, if structural realism is precise then policy formulators should accentuate competences and equilibrium of influence in the process of negotiation with an opposition. Nonetheless, if domestic political dialogues are more astute and intuitive, then the policy formulators initially require comprehending the domestic condition of the opponent nation and based on that formulate their own foreign policy (Souva, 2005).

Responding to the query associated to the vital nature of domestic politics is exigent for a couple of motives. Foremost what reckons as a domestic political elucidation of foreign policy hinges on an implied distinction to elucidations that are not domestic or political (Fearon, 1998, 291). It is not adequate to explicate that a domestic-level constituent is rationally considerable in explicating that national political elucidations supplant systemic elucidations, while a few systemic elucidations entail domestic-level constituents (Souva, 2005).

Secondly, majority of the investigations has not utilized apposite statistical experimentations for scrutinizing diverse and deviating abstract representations. The customary technique for judging non-experimented representations is to coalesce each and every constituent in to a solitary representation and then determine which of the elucidations are noteworthy. As mentioned by Clarke (2001, 2003) this methodology is an abstract form of judging non-experimented representations and it is unbeneficial to progressing scientific comprehension. Alternatively, investigators should commence a "three-cornered brawl" (Lakatos, 1970, 115), judging the diverse and deviating representations analogous to one another along with the facts, and after that scrutinizing these diverse representations by utilizing apposite statistical experimentation methodology. Essentially, investigation conducted by Clarke specifies that the verification in opposition to realism . . . is distended (Clarke, 2001, 724). Realist representations have the tendency of surpassing their opponents.

A technique to scrutinize analogous domestic political and systemic assumptions is to comprehend the condition and position of the political atmosphere. It is a universal phenomenon that a nation is always thoughtful for its safety from any peril or intimidation; hence the political personalities and figures should always be considerate when formulating a foreign policy because it serves as a roadmap to tackle associations in a global spectrum. This abstract standpoint has a representation in American political milieu: two presidency assumptions proposed by Wildavsky's (1966). Wildavsky mentioned that on the subject of foreign policy the president seems to gain a bilateral buttress due to the fact that global milieu persuades Congress to take an opposite stance to that of the president. As discussed by structural realists' the stoppage of political leanings at the water's periphery regarding the foreign policy assumption is a prime example of this, and in such conditions two-presidency is precisely the subject which should be explicated (Souva, 2005).

Nonetheless, in modern times, the two-presidency assumption has been confronted. It is mentioned that preceding the termination of the Vietnam War there might have been occurrences of two-presidency assumption, and foreign policy subjects has been dictated by political leanings since that phase (Meernik, 1993; Prins, 2001). Regardless of these assertions, I have to mention that not a single investigation has adequately scrutinized the political leaning assumptions and it has judged this assumption in the light of the systemic realist ideology.

I have also scrutinized the congressional foreign policy and the global association manuscripts. This scrutiny recommends a couple of prevalent and contending representations of bilateral political leanings in the subject of foreign policy voting, a domestic political representation and a systemic realist representation. After that, I have experimented with the contending representations by scrutinizing the activities of the American House of Representatives. Whilst, preceding investigations have judged these assumptions by scrutinizing solitary constituents, I have judged them by analyzing the representations by means of a non-experimented representation methodology. The pragmatic investigations have depicted that the domestic political representation supplants the systemic realist representation. It is advisable that the priority should be given to the domestic political constituents rather than to the structural influential constituents, if the aim is to comprehend the nature of those constituents which instigate global associations (Souva, 2005).

Theoretical Perspectives: Systemic Realism vs. National Interest

Two kinds of domestic and systemic political assumptions have been discerned by Fearon (1998). S1- is a kind of systemic theory which illustrates nations as united and logical performers. The systemic theory of this particular kind is common and might incorporate component-level traits. S2- is the other kind of systemic theoretic assumptions which also accentuates nations as united and logical performers, although this kind does not incorporate component-level traits to explicate communication amidst nations. Waltz's (1979) structural realism has been discerned by S2. D1- is a kind of domestic political theory which responds to S1, by mentioning that nations are non-united performers along with domestic politics is the rationale due to which suboptimal foreign policy formulation arises. D2- is the other form of domestic political assumption that responds to S2, by mentioning that nations are non-united performers and relies on component-level traits.

The impending ideology of the above categorization accentuates that the domestic political assumptions of D2 might be analogous to the systemic theoretic assumptions of S1, due to the fact that the latter might incorporate component-level traits. Hence, as a deduction it is not adequate to elucidate that a domestic constituent is statistically noteworthy to discern that domestic politics is vital, for a few systemic theories for national interest can entail domestic constituents. Alternatively, the prime dissimilarity amidst S1 and D2 theoretic assumptions is the notion that the component-level constituents instigate a suboptimal foreign policy and national interest strategy. Therefore, a much more reliable methodology is to accentuate on the nature of the representations which explicate a particular reliant constituent rather than on the solitary variables, when judging domestic-political and systemic representations of national interest and foreign policy. On the basis of this assumption, I have illustrated the congressional national interest and foreign policy voting manuscripts to explicate contending domestic-political and systemic realist representations of national interest and foreign policy political leaning (Souva, 2005).

A Systemic Realist design of the National Interest and Foreign Policy Voting

When dealing with the national interest and forigen policy notions, it is first important to know what are the precise stimuli required by the nations from the systemic realist standpoint. The answer is simply -- security. Albeit the systemic realism accentuates on nations as prime performers in global politics, the micro foundation of the assumption speculates that any person when encountering an analogous condition will perform in analogous conduct i.e. wherever agents and agencies are conjoined by vigour and opposition as a replacement for influence and regulation (Waltz, 1979, 117). The common insinuations of the above mentioned assumptions of the political leaning activity and politics are atypical in their involvement in the national interest strategies and foreign policy paradigms (Souva, 2005).

The rationales for this dual action towards national interest and foreign policy are: foremost, every person will perform analogous computation concerning the methodology of formulating a national interest policy that complements the foreign policy (Waltz, 1979, 117). Policy location does not instigate from insularity disquiet as far as the national interest policy is concerned. Moreover, computation founded by these stresses can ascertain the formulation of those policies which will be of immense magnitude for a nation, internally and, in the long run, internationally (Waltz, 1979, 117). Secondly, interior squabbling, or political…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"National Interest As A Key Determinants In Foreign Policy Internationally" (2011, March 29) Retrieved October 24, 2016, from

"National Interest As A Key Determinants In Foreign Policy Internationally" 29 March 2011. Web.24 October. 2016. <>

"National Interest As A Key Determinants In Foreign Policy Internationally", 29 March 2011, Accessed.24 October. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Role of Private Investment on

    This also implies inadequacies in fiscal sustainability, which influences investments in private sectors. The second channel happens through the level, composition and quality involved within the public investment, which shows the level at which the public investment replaces the private investments (Schmidt- Hebbel, Serven, & Solimano, 1996). The final channel regards the level of taxation on the corporate earnings and the rules applicable in depreciations. There have been arguments that fiscal policy

  • Education for Economy Theory as it Relates

    Education for Economy Theory as it Relates to Adult Education In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people

  • Gender and International Relations International

    57). Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58). If feminists are right about the female nature being

  • Popularity of Foreign Restaurant Consumer Attitude and

    popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok Thailand as a tourist destination Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies

  • Social Variables in the Development

    To critically investigate the current state of international business relationship development literature. 2. To explore the characteristics that determines sustainable international business relationships within the Libyan business context-from the Libyan point-of-view. 3. To present a model based on the findings from the two objectives above. This model will serve two main functions: (I). It will help fill in gaps in the current literature relating to the development and maintenance of business

  • Trade Show Industry in Germany

    Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market. The study is important for a second reason that international trade is becoming a cause for concern after the global recession. The economies of various countries have been affected after a decline in their purchasing power. It is said that economic recovery is possible through an increase in trade and

  • Opportunity Exists for the Company

    The business culture of the United Kingdom is characterized by the value of free economy and private property (Rendtorff, 2009). At another level, it is marked by a desire to manage work and life issues. The employees in British organizations have long been marked out for their relatively leisurely pace of work and their priority for relationship issues over work related issues. Compared with their American counterparts, employees in UK

Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved