Nature of Truth Term Paper
- Length: 10 pages
- Subject: Black Studies - Philosophy
- Type: Term Paper
- Paper: #13304077
Excerpt from Term Paper :
Nature of Truth
We exist in an age swanked by an intense opposition to assertive truth. Truth can supposed to be either a "bond" or an "individual meet." Truth is compared to opinion, discernment, and viewpoint. Truth is compared to personal viewpoint as a person, family, faction, city, country, civilization, and humankind. The doctrines of viewpoint are identical on every social range, but their comparative particulars vary due to their comparative point-of-view, discernment and outlook. Truth is mainly compared to being altered on the constricted personal-array of solid truth, not as much on the intermediate city-range of perception, and minimum of the wide spectrum of humankind with its universal perplexing values.
Truth for variety, ideas for concord, values for unanimity. Just one among these might be apparent at an instant, relative to viewpoint. A harmonizing alteration between the values of a trinity of truth exists. This contains the trinity of viewpoints that alters between broad-medium-narrow arrays of truth. When one array of viewpoint is concentrated upon, in harmony, the remaining viewpoints are drowned taking along with it their truths. Due to this, three individuals might perceive the same railway line in their own way. Every one might express a separate truth, although each would refute the truth which is claimed by the remaining ones. Just a lithe viewpoint, among broad-medium-narrow permits an outlook of the entire trinity of truth. (Craig, 111)
In order to recognize the entire truth, someone's lithe viewpoint ought to transform to visualize the complete as unity of diversity. The chief component is a unanimity corresponding to the trivial, exhaustive component of multiplicity. An incomplete relative truth differs; whereas the complete absolute truth does not change. To visualize the entire viewpoint of truth, one has to be a resurgent person, who can perform harmonizing alterations in his broad-medium-narrow array of viewpoints. This renders the resurgent person to be proficient in theology-philosophy-science, or in spiritual-rational-sensual truths, which are instinctive-logical-empirical.
The predicament reaches in the manner of approaching the Ultimate Truth. It is excellent to achieve our operational knowledge of the universe from the logical techniques, and from inductive thoughts. It is an established pathway to knowledge. That pathway cannot, nevertheless reach at Eternity. Eternal entities can simply be discovered. We reach at Ultimate Truth through deductive methods, and through understanding in a complete diverse area of survival. The functioning of the universe is one entity; the significance of the universe is completely separate matter. We delve deep into the importance of entities by bearing in mind as to where it gels into the discovered Truth. (Schmitt, 35)
We do not arrive at the Truth by evaluating everything that we study. We accept Truth as discovered and determine the manner as to how it speaks about everything that we study. The disparities in Western and Eastern philosophy are discernible. Eastern philosophy has gradually been "discovered" by the West; in the meantime, the growth of Western thinking and philosophy has been minutely analyzed by contemporary and postmodern philosophers and thinkers as defective at its centre. German philosopher Martin Heidegger arrived at the decision that "Western philosophy is a massive fault" (Barret, 11).
The way in which Western thinking was established, the path of its progress and its invasion in all facade of life in the Western world has been and presently being doubted on all spheres by renowned detractors and philosophers. Western Philosophical customs and the manner of its creation of Western societies has been explained elaborately in Robert Pirsig's 'Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance'. In that process, he tenders an appraisal of some facets of Western thought that effected from a crucial combat for man's mind. (Pirsig, 381) What emerged was a dismembering of the mind from matter, of observation from understanding. Apart from delineating the history and philosophy in the backdrop of Western thinking, he tenders a reinvention of the exact idea that was obscured behind the 'debris of declining Athens' and Rome, hidden intensely under the novel victor of Western man: Rationale, Intellect, and Wisdom (Pirsig 391).
Pirsig quotes Thoreau in letters, that "One would not achieve anything, but would have to bear losses for something" (Pirsig, 387). This is applicable with direct impact to Western development. While comprehending the universe by dialectic truths human misplaced the capability to comprehend the manner in which he can be an element of the universe, and not a foe of it. (Pirsig, 387) Nevertheless, what Pirsig expresses is not only a mode of envisioning the universe, but it is the sole way. Though Pirsig does not describe it unambiguously, this notion is the matter of settlement between Eastern and Western philosophy, and undeniably, its consequences would be observed in every feature of living. The concept that the natural world can be segmented judiciously into planned structures has innately originated in the West. This entails that a system of ideas are there to elucidate the world, the universe. The "structure of concepts" is describes a hierarchy, and is subdivided still further, is a system of separations, or difference (Pirsig, 97).
Pirsig affirms that this was a "fundamental structure for all Western knowledge" (Pirsig, 97). William Barrett states that Western traditions in thought actually emanates from two cultural milieus, Hebrew and Greek, both of whom are "deeply dualistic in character" (Pirsig, 9). This implies they "segment reality into two portions" setting one part off against the other (Barrett ix). The Hebrews achieved it on the basis of morals, segregating God from Creation, flesh from spirit and correct from incorrect. The Greek are segmented on the point of philosophical and intellectual appearance and it was Plato who had founded the Western philosophy (Barrett, 9).
To comprehend its impact, we shall have to slightly stride back in the past. In the fourth century, Greece asserted that the thought of the Sophists who, was not apprehensive any more of the problem of Cosmology, concentrated their thinking on humans as his self being, his knowledge, and his principles. Their point as per Pirsig was "not any one particular truth, but the development of humans" (Pirsig 383). Cognitive relativism affirms the relativity of truth. Due to the proximity between the idea of truth and ideas like rationality and knowledge, cognitive relativism is frequently accepted to include, or mean, the relativity of rationality as well as knowledge.
The outline, or stance, to which truth is relativized is generally comprehended to be a theoretical plan. This might be the theoretical design of a complete culture or time; or it might be envisaged more narrowly as the hypothetical structure of a certain group of people: for instance, quantum physicists, or Southern Baptists. Cognitive Relativism, similar to many other types of relativism, is frequently supposed to have been coined by the early sophists, mainly Protagoras who started his publication 'Truth' with the well-known proclamation: Man is the yardstick of everything -- of entities which are, which they are, of entities which they are not, which they are not. The Sophists, while discarding the concept that everything of nature and therefore, humans were transcendentally established, halted at the urgency of sensory, or practical notion of man. Their education revolved around the idea of arete, that means 'excellence' in Greek, however nowadays is deciphered as 'virtue'. (Davson-Galle, 76)
With the likely exclusion of the sophists, not many philosophers in the Western tradition have supported any type of cognitive relativism until quite lately. A lot of people supposed that there is several viewpoint -- for instance, referring to God -- in respect to which our decisions are explicitly true or false. During the nineteenth century this conjecture were acutely challenged by a diminutive amount of significant thinkers, importantly Nietzsche and William James. During the twentieth century a relativistic outlook of truth, even though it continues to rouse malicious reactions from anti-relativists has unquestionably won much more aficionados; definitely it has turned out to be roughly ordinary in a number of philosophical coterie. Relativistic vision of truth have got more drive from or were articulated in the books of several extensively read twentieth century thinkers namely as the later Quine, Foucault, Winch, Derrida and others. (Davson-Galle, 76)
Socrates contradicted Sophist idea of relativism with the concept that complete knowledge was universal, essential for the human thinking. Plato, viewed Truth as the greatest Ideal, and since Knowledge was a tenet of Truth, it cannot be weakened gradually by the Sophists who considered that "everything is relative." Plato upheld the autonomy of Truth and Knowledge; he upheld the supremacy of Truth over Arete. Plato on his own visualized the necessity of Good, but to unravel it to his individual idea of Truth; he obtained the teaching of the Sophists and made an effort to convert into an Idea, that is, an unassailable, distinct being termed 'Good'. The philosophy of Plato embodied Truth, and like Phaedrus, revealed the Good and the Truth "were busy in a massive fight for the future mind of human" (Pirsig 381).
This combat established the future of Western thinking. Aristotle relegated…