Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
In order to achieve its function, the nervous system is divided into two major parts i.e. The Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The central nervous system is basically made up of the brain and spinal cord and has the main function of receiving information from the body and sending out instructions. While the brain is protected by the skull, the spinal cord is guarded by the vertebral column. On the contrary, the basic structure of the peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, motor neurons, and sensory receptors ("Nervous System," 2001). The system is responsible for sending messages from the brain to other parts of the body. PNS is divided into the afferent and efferent divisions with the afferent division consists of distinctively structured sensory receptor for transmitting information to the CNS about the body's internal environment ("Peripheral Nervous System," 2010). The efferent division is made up of sensory and motor neurons for sending information from CNS to body organs for appropriate responses.
Efferent division is divided into somatic nervous system with peripheral nerve fibers that transmit sensory information to the CNS and motor nerves connected to skeletal muscle ("Divisions of the Nervous System," n.d.). The other part is autonomic nervous system with splanchnic or visceral nerves connected to the CNS for mediating visceral functions and innervating glands, viscera, and blood vessels ("Parts of Nervous System," n.d.). The autonomic division is divided into the sympathetic division made up of a series of interconnected neurons for speeding up heart rate, widen pupils, flight response, and relax bladder. It also contains parasympathetic division contains interconnected neurons enhances intestinal and gland activity, slows the heart rate, constricts pupils, and contracts the bladder (Bailey, n.d.).
Major Endocrine Organs:
The endocrine system is basically made up of glands and organs that produce and secrete hormones and chemical substances from the body, which regulate cells or organs activity. These hormones are responsible for regulating the growth of the body, body metabolism, and sexual development and function. Some of the major organs or glands of the endocrine system include hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, thymus, ovaries, testes, pineal, and stomach ("The Endocrine System," n.d.).
Hypothalamus is an organ located in the lower central section of the brain and releases hormones that are secreted into an artery that transports them to the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland contains a glandular anterior section and a neural posterior section and secrets hormones that control growth making the most important endocrine organ ("Endocrine System," 2012). The endocrine system consists of two adrenal glands i.e. The inner and outer parts whose main function is to produce various hormones. While the outer part regulate salt and water balance in the body, the inner part increases blood pressure and heart rate during bodily stress. Pancreas secrets two vital hormones that sustain a constant level of sugar or glucose in the blood for the body to have fuel that produces and maintains energy stores ("Endocrine System," n.d.).
The pineal gland in the middle of the brain releases a hormone known as melatonin that helps in regulating the wake-sleep cycle. The thyroid gland is at the lower part of the neck to regulate the metabolism of the body and parathyroid gland secret hormone that regulate calcium levels in the bone and blood metabolism (Kemp & Stoppler, n.d.). Ovaries are female gonads that produce estrogens and progesterone for maturation of reproductive organs whereas testes are male gonads that stimulate maturation of male reproductive organs. Thymus is a gland that produces vital hormones for developing cells of the immune system ("Endocrine," n.d.).
Homeostatic Control of Blood Glucose Levels:
Homeostasis can be described as the process that enables living organisms to sustain relatively constant levels of temperature, water, pH, and ions balance. This process is critical for the effective functioning of an individual because cells require a stable environment for their survival. Homeostasis mechanisms are governed by processes known as negative feedback as they respond to environmental changes through releasing molecules like hormones to restore the levels with the normal range ("Describe the Homeostatic Regulation," n.d.).
Since cells obtain energy from glucose, homeostasis control of blood glucose levels is vital because too much glucose is toxic whereas little glucose contributes to starvation. At point 1, the glucose level in the blood is within its normal range and continues to fluctuate with time due to digestion after eating and the release of insulin. The digestion process after a meal results in increased glucose levels while lower blood levels are experienced due to loss of glucose in the urine (James, 2004). Points 2 and 3 are the two pancreatic receptors for the increase and decrease of glucose respectively due to homeostasis. These receptors have the responsibility of monitoring blood glucose levels because of its significance in each cell for respiration ("Sugar Homeostasis," n.d.).
Points 4 and 5 are the liver, which acts as the storehouse for glycogen through insulin and glucagon hormones that control concentration of blood glucose. While the increase of blood sugar levels results in secretion of insulin, the decrease of these levels secrets glucagon (Paul, n.d.). As these levels are regulated through the homeostasis process, they come back to normal range as reflected by point 6. Points 7 and 8 represent type I and type II of diabetes mellitus respectively since type I diabetes mellitus is insulin dependent while type II of this disease is insulin independent ("Homeostatic Mechanisms," n.d.).
Sensory Receptors in the Human Skin:
The human skin consists of several sensory receptors that obtain information from the external environment. While the sensory receptors are located in different parts in the skin, they are mainly concerned with five distinct senses i.e. cold, pain, touch, heat, and pressure. These five categories are usually grouped together as the single sense of touch in the categorization of the five sense of the entire human body. Notably, the sensory receptors in the human skin also vary greatly based on their structure ("Sensory Receptors," n.d.).
Ruffini's end organs are highly branched nerve endings which are small swellings at the end of every branch of the nerve ending within a fluid filled capsule in the linking tissue. This sensory receptor in the human skin responds to stress or distension in the deeper dermis ("Human Skin Sensory Receptors," n.d.). While they contain a spiral of nerve endings in a swirling mass of special Schwann cells, Meissner's corpuscles are situated in the dermal papillae of hairless sections of the skin surface and respond to touch. Pacinian corpuscles are located in deep dermis or hypodermis in the skin and respond to vibration and pressure. Free nerve endings are simple receptors located at the end of sensory neurons and respond to a combination of sensations such as heat, touch, cold, and pain ("Sensory Receptors in the Human Skin," n.d.).
Merkel's disc is closely linked to the Merkel's cells that are located in the epidermis though they are located in the dermis and respond to light touch. Similarly, noiceptors are found in the dermis and respond to pain, cold, and heat since they are pain receptors ("Chapter 49," n.d.). Chemoreceptors and thermoreceptors are sensory receptors that respond to chemical sensations and respond to cold or hot temperature respectively ("Sensory Systems," n.d.). Bulboid corpulses is regarded as a thermoreceptor that responds to the sensation of cold temperatures.
A Body Basics Article (n.d.), Endocrine System, Kids Health, viewed 27 May 2012,
Academic Cengage (n.d.), Sensory Receptors in the Human Skin, Academic Cengage, viewed 27
Bailey, R (n.d.), Nervous System -- Peripheral Nervous System, About.com -- Biology, viewed 27
Big Pond Health (2010), Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), Virtual Medical Centre, viewed 27
BiologyGuide.net (n.d.), Homeostatic Mechanisms Function to Maintain the Body in a State of Equilibrium and Allow a Degree of Independence from the Environment, BiologyGuide.net, viewed 27 May 2012,
Biology Online (n.d.), Sugar Homeostasis, Biology Online, viewed 27 May 2012,
Clinton Community College (n.d.), Sensory Systems, State University of New York, viewed 27
Comparative Anatomy (n.d.), Human Skin Sensory Receptors, University of the Cumberlands,
viewed 27 May 2012,
EHow -- Health (n.d.), Describe the Homeostatic Regulation of Blood Glucose Levels, eHow
Health, viewed 27 May 2012,
Greater Albany Public School District (n.d.), Endocrine, Greater Albany Public School District,
viewed 27 May 2012,
Human Anatomy and Physiology (2012), Endocrine System, City College of San Francisco,
viewed 27 May 2012,
James, P (2004), Understanding the Processes behind the Regulation of Blood Glucose, Nursing
Times, viewed 27 May 2012,
Kemp, S. & Stoppler, M.C (n.d.), Anatomy of the Endocrine System, E-Medicine Health, viewed
27 May 2012,
Man Anatomy (n.d.), Parts of the Nervous System, Man Anatomy, viewed 27 May 2012,
"Nervous System." (2001), Body Guide Powered by Adam, Pen Medicine, viewed 27 May 2012,
Neuroscience for Kids (2010), Divisions of the Nervous System, University of Washington,
viewed 27 May 2012,…[continue]
"Nervous System In Order To Achieve Its" (2012, May 27) Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/nervous-system-in-order-to-achieve-its-80254
"Nervous System In Order To Achieve Its" 27 May 2012. Web.25 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/nervous-system-in-order-to-achieve-its-80254>
"Nervous System In Order To Achieve Its", 27 May 2012, Accessed.25 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/nervous-system-in-order-to-achieve-its-80254
Performance/Reward System: An organization can achieve a competitive edge only and only with the help of its employees. Therefore, it is necessary that right employees are selected then trained and developed and a performance-based reward system. The question then comes to the performance measurement system. In a furniture retail store where I work they stick to the old practice of a meeting of top managers and supervisor who sit down annually
However, all muscles are ultimately controlled by the central nervous system. Because the muscles are attached to the skeleton, all skeletal movements can be traced back to the central nervous system. The integumentary system is one of the body's primary interfaces with the outside world. Together with the sensory system, the integumentary system interact with the central nervous system by communicating its inputs. 3. Homeostasis is the body's state of
PECS and Autism THE BEST MODE Comparison and Contrast: Picture Exchange Communication System Autism is a developmental disorder of communication skills, caused by abnormalities in the brain or nervous system. Symptoms usually surface in the first 3 years of life. Treatments are in the form of picture communication systems, medication, diets and social interaction. The most effective appears to be the PECS, which treats in six phases. It has advantages and disadvantages to
Information System holds in Accounting Industry's future? Looking through the glass and estimating what the future holds for any individual or profession is always a difficult exercise as the trends in any business or profession may change and so the path of development. It is better to look at the experience of some companies whose systems have changed over the past few years and thus try to estimate what is
Expert Systems and Neural Networks The Development and Limitations of Expert Systems and Neural Networks The human experience demands a constant series of decisions to survive in a hostile environment. The question of "fight or flight" and similar decisions has been translated into computer-based models by using the now-famous "if-then" programming command that has evolved into the promising field of artificial intelligence. In fact, in their groundbreaking work, Newell and Simon (1972)
Therefore an indigenous accounting profession did not evolve in this period either and no accounting or audit rules were established" (2000, p. 16). In this free-for-all environment, it is difficult to discern any influence from the French accounting profession, except to the extent that its transactions involved the international community where certain documentary practices must be followed in order to conduct international commerce. For example, according to a contemporaneous
Topic: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Order ID: A2018177 User Name: sabina1325 Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological problem that affects children. As children grow some of them grow out of this behavioral problem, however in some cases it does continue into adulthood. ADHD is a behavioral problem that creates difficulty for the individual to remain focused, or inactive. This is a severe problem because there is currently no known cure for