Nursing Education Essay

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Nursing Education

Does nursing have a unique body of knowledge or is it the application of various other fields of knowledge in a practice setting?

Nursing does have a unique body of knowledge as Moyer and Whittmann-Price (2008) state "it is nursing's unique knowledge base that warrants a unique service or practice called professional nursing" (6). This means that like the other help-specific sciences nursing was founded on the basis of research that is unique to the methods needed for the practice of that occupation and no other. This definition of this practice is bounded within that research

What are the expectations and patient considerations of evidence-based practice in nursing?

First of all, evidence-based practice assumes that the exercise of the field is predicated on what research has determined will best aid patients. Expectation, viewed from an ethical perspective, is that nurses will provide care that is not anecdotal but has been observed to contain the best available means of easing that particular ailment. The consideration in the gathering research is only for the patient. Again, according to Moyer and Whittmann-Price (2008) research is used for "diagnosing, treating and organizing" the care that is given to each patient for a particular problem. Evidence-based care may require that nursing protocols change if a patient exhibits new issues and it is the nurse's knowledge that allows this to be completed.

3. Reflect on your own practice. Provide examples of how you engaged in caring and supportive relationships. Explain how you may be able to model these behaviors for students in a clinical setting.

Caring for a patient takes on many different facets. Of course, it starts with how a nurse speaks and reacts to a patient, but it also has to do with how thorough the nurse is, the attention paid to body language, and the information that is relayed regarding the patient. Personally, I conducting intake with a patient seems very critical. Allowing the patient the time to discuss themselves can be very valuable. Unfortunately, the time allotted for this activity may be short, but it is imperative that it be conducted thoroughly and with patience.

4. What was the purpose of NANDA in relation to nursing knowledge development?

Prior to the formation of NANDA in 1973, there was no coordinated group concerned with cataloging acquired nursing knowledge (NANDA, 2012). Of course, there were already theorists who had been working for years to determine best practices, but they were often working alone and the information that they provided was not widely looked on as science. The founding of NANDA lent credibility to the breadth of knowledge and provided a depository for it. NANDA also offered a platform for nursing theorists and researchers to push the field of nursing forward.

Module 2

According to the AACN there are multiple problems restraining the retention of nursing faculty so there have to be multiple solutions. Some of these, from the AACN (2005) document on nursing faulty shortages are to:

"Consolidate core curriculum; accept courses from other disciplines; utilize expert non-nurse faculty; utilize qualified non-nurse faculty to hold administrative positions; utilize the expertise of junior faculty by partnering them with senior, fully qualified faculty; seek opportunities to sponsor educational sessions that inform nurses outside the academic setting about an academic career; remove impediments to graduate study for working nurses; and, attract more second- degree students to the nursing profession."

These solutions cover just a portion of the need and there is much more to the proposal.

The keys to ensuring that a student is ready to learn can be found in the acronym PEEK. This stands for readiness to learn in the realms of the physical, emotional, experiential, and knowledge areas (Bastable, 2008, 106). These can either enhance or hinder learning depending on how they are perceived by the student. For example, a room could be too cold (physical), the task could be considered too difficult (both emotional and knowledge), and it could also be culturally specific (experiential), which could all cause a hindrance to learning. If these were turned around they could be considered as enhancing the learning environment. Another example can be found in the motivation of the student in the emotional realm. The connection the student feels to the teacher, the engagement in the topic, and prior learning experiences can all benefit the motivation of the student.

Several different instruments are used to measure learning styles so that the individual and the instructor understand how best the student learns. The Dunn and Dunn is considered with "patterns through which learning occurs" (Bastable, 2008, 126), the Myers-Briggs typology determines the personality of the learner and demonstrates cues in this way (Bastable, 2008, 128), Kolb looked at learning as a life-long process in which prior experience was used to enhance future learning (Bastable, 2008, 130). These and other such as McCarthy's 4 MAT system and Gardiner's types of intelligence are all meant to provide the instructor with the knowledge needed to assist the learner through the process.

Module 3

1. Identify the many healthcare trends (social, economic, political, legal, and ethical) that affect nursing practice and the role of the nurse as educator. Elaborate on the degree of influence these trends have on the responsibilities of nurses.

The trends are meant to mirror the needs in the nursing community. The leading social trend is to help nurses who are on the job connect better with schools of nursing so that they can find more people to fill educator slots. Economically, schools are offering bonuses to nurses who would like to teach. The largest political trend has been that toward universal healthcare which may reduce a nurses choices and cut salaries. Legally, nurses have always been in danger of malpractice, but the issue could trend negatively because there are fewer nurses for the positions available so more is expected of fewer staff. Ethical trends are for more accountability from hospitals with regard to the nursing staff.

2. As a nurse educator, you need to understand the regulations of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) so that you adhere appropriately to the law in extending civil rights protection to learners, such as those who have sensory, physical, or learning disabilities. Discuss the terms of the law, including the meaning of a "major life activity" and "reasonable accommodations." Give two (2) examples of reasonable accommodations as they relate to teaching a person with a sensory disability, a person with a physical impairment, and a person with a learning disability.

This law was designed primarily to ensure equal access to people with a variety of disabilities (ADA, 2012). A major life activity is defined as "an activity that is central to daily life" (ADA, 2012), and reasonable accommodations are "modifications or adjustments that enable qualified individuals with disabilities to apply for a job and/or perform the essential functions of a job" (ADA, 2012). A person with impaired vision may need to have Braille or audio instructions for a task. Physical impairment may require a ramp to get to work, or a conveyance to move around in. A person with a learning disability may need different forms of training instruction.

3. Describe an experience you have had either as a learner or as a teacher, focusing on factors that were effective and factors that were detrimental to the process of teaching or learning relative to the developmental stage of the learner.

Many instructors will use visual aids when they are giving lecture, but these aids are generally not comprehensive. A hearing impaired student often needs to have a secondary resource (AV equipment, ASL translator) so that they can reach the reasonable accommodation threshold.

4. Select a PEM commonly distributed to clients in various healthcare settings (e.g., hospitals, physicians' offices, clinics, home care agencies). Calculate the literacy level of the PEM using the Fog, SMOG, and Fry readability formulas. Draw conclusions about the appropriateness of these tools for patient education. Make suggestions for changes to lower the literacy level, as appropriate,

One of the most common PEMs used in a healthcare setting is to warn against sexually transmitted diseases. Using the Gunning Fog Index the readability score of the selected text was 17.16 which states that it was difficult to read. The Fry formula graphed the selection as being appropriate for an eighth grade level reader. The SMOG formula calculated the text at a 12.6 or college level writing. It seems the Fry formula is probably the least likely to yield appropriate results and the other two could be used to make sure that the level of reading difficulty (somewhere in the middle school range) was maintained.

Module 4

1. Conduct a literature review of any current research done on multicultural education in nursing. Critically appraise one evidence-based article.

In a very recent article dealing with learning strategies for teaching in a multicultural nurse student environment, Dewald (2012) suggested using a "mentoring, tutoring and advisement approach" that would help to retain minority students. Diversity is a goal that all nursing…[continue]

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