Obesity and Its Consequences Obesity and Its Research Paper
- Length: 8 pages
- Sources: 5
- Subject: Health
- Type: Research Paper
- Paper: #48566941
Excerpt from Research Paper :
Obesity and Its Consequences
Obesity and its Prevalence Trends
Final Research Paper: Obesity and Health Problems
Obesity has significantly become an issue in the current century, which requires great intervention of the entire society. The research of this proposal aims at analyzing the situations related to obesity including; its causes, the effects it has on individual health, the manner in which it causes illnesses and related diseases and recommendations for easing the spread of obesity to the global arena. There has to be immediate interrogation of the obesity cases, to determine the best way in which problem could be controlled. The research concerning the obesity was done by consulting websites on healthcare, online databases that had journal research papers on obesity and other internet sources that are all referenced in the last page of the paper. The research done had a positive conclusion, as there was a possibility of controlling obesity by adopting the right eating habits and engaging in body exercises that will ensure body fitness.
Prevalence and Trends in Obesity
Cases of obesity have been on the increase for the past two decades. In this case study, analysis of the trends and increase in obesity are done in England and America. This does not actually mean that there are no increasing cases in the other parts of the world. The entire problem of obesity is a global disaster, but in England, for instance, obesity has prevailed and increased with double percentages in two decades. Though the epidemic affects the entire world, England is distinct due to the overwhelming numbers affected. In England, the percentage of adults who suffer the consequence of obesity has risen from about 6% in 1978, to as high as over 20% of all adults in 2010. The figures mentioned are scaring, considering the health implications of obesity. The levels of obesity used during the data collected where set to be BMI?30kg/m2 (National Obesity Observatory, 2010). Prevalence of obesity is on the rise and results of the National Obesity Observatory indicated that adults alone, who included men and women, moved from a healthy BMI of about 41% to 30% in men and 49% to 40% in women. This was for the year 1993 to 2010 only. Health is deteriorating every year, and more people are vulnerable to diseases caused and related to obesity. Evidently in England, more women are obese compared to the men, and this could be related to activity differences, eating habits and regulation of workout time. The trend is no different for children. In England, children are considered to be those of the age between 2 and 15 years. The highest percentage in obese children was in the year 2004, where over 25% of the entire children population was obese. In 2010, the situation is not better either with about 18% of the children suffering obesity (National Obesity Observatory, 2010).
After using the cluster sampling techniques in research, the United States was showing the highest trends in both the number of obese people, and also the prevalence trends. After the analysis, and the collection of relevant data, the National Center for Health Statistics provided results that were as follows; in the year between 2007 and 2008, 32% of the entire adult population of men was affected by obesity in one way or the other. Prevailing rates for obese women were 35%, and there was no indication that there was any incentive to reduce the rates (Flegal, Carroll & Ogden, 2010).
Is Obesity a Disease?
The issue of whether to refer to obesity as a disease or not qualifies for more intensive approach to the meaning of a disease. Closer and analytical examination of facts has to be done, and the truth determined. The definitions of the word disease are well explained in the medical and English dictionaries. Some of the sources defined a disease as a condition in an animal's body, or a specific organ in the body that leads to disturbance and deranged states. In addition, a disease could be a situation where the health conditions are impaired or attacked, leading to dysfunctions of vital body functions. In summation, a disease in most cases would affect the body and its organs and the entire body system. The disease should result from contagious sources, nutritional imbalances, environmental factors, diet, viruses and many other causes. The disease is also expected to impair the normal functioning of the body and distort the organs in the body.
After the description of what a disease is, the next question to ask is the potential of obesity fitting in the description. First, description of obesity is necessary. According to Myers (2011), obesity could be identified as the excessive body fat, which in most cases results to impairment of the health conditions of the body. Obesity is a result of the multiplication of fat cells. On average, normal people are supposed to have fat cells ranging from 30 to 35 billion. Any exceeding numbers are related to obesity. Usually, Body Mass Index (BMI) concept is used to gauge the weight levels in humans. The concept integrates the weight and height of the body, to determine whether one is obese or not. BMI figures exceeding 30.0 indicate obesity. Obesity, therefore, does not in any way involve the descriptions of the term disease. Obesity is not caused by disease causing agents such as parasites, viruses and many others. However, poor nutrition and diet are somehow related to causes of obesity, and they also cause disease. Obesity has also been known to affect the abilities of the body in functioning and movement (excessive obesity), which is also an outcome of disease. There are also many cases of obese people who stay for long periods without developing any obese-inflicted health complication/disease. It will be unreasonable, therefore, to regard obesity as a leading cause of afflicting related diseases yet many cases have proved that obese individuals could live without suffering any side effects. To be precise, assumptions have to be made. First, the extent to which obesity could be regarded as a disease depends on the level of BMI of the individual. Secondly, obesity is a risk, as it may lead to diet related illnesses, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure together with many other types of the dreaded cancer disease (Crawford, et. al., 2011).
Social and Economic Consequences of Obesity
Obesity has led to extremely harsh conditions in the community, which are affecting the victims of obesity in social and economic terms. The consequences of obesity on public heath include; risk of premature deaths due to exposure and vulnerability. Because obesity is an element resulting to other diseases, it has caused many deaths due to related diseases. The obese are at likely to develop serious health issues, which in most cases lead to death due to increase of patients and poor health facilities. The situation gets worse if the citizens are from developing countries, where healthcare facilities are scarce. In addition, the quality of life is undermined because of obesity. Victims are prone to diseases, and they live unhealthy lives altogether. The obese people are unable to indulge in life experiences such as sporting (athletics and swimming) and other entertaining indulgences. This is because individuals suffering obesity, especially those with BMI of over 40.0, are in most cases immobile (Crawford, et. al., 2011).
Cases of discrimination have also been reported. Women are the most affected, as they even fight rejections when applying for jobs. Monash University researchers found out that obese women were discriminated upon, to the extent they were receiving lower compensations compared to the other colleagues. This was evident in every other job criteria, and it even affected the possibilities of promotion to leadership positions (Scott, 2012). As the U.S., for instance, tries to fight against discrimination with all the vigor, many organizations still involve themselves in the shameful acts of discriminating the obese, who have the qualifications and abilities to work.
The economic implications of obesity are also extreme. High obesity prevalence has caused high demand for more healthcare units and facilities. The available infrastructure has to be developed to contain the obese. Both the government and private non-governmental institutions are paying dearly for expansion of general facilities, and more precisely healthcare organizations. Alarming costs are designated for health provisions for the obese, using funds, which could otherwise be invested in income generating ventures. The society is in trouble as it is burdened with extra costs on issues that could strategically be prevented (Crawford, et. al., 2011).
Causes of Obesity
In cases where susceptible individuals are subjected to environments that promote obesity, then the prevalence rates increase. The U.S. Surgeon General indicates clearly that obesity and other levels of overweight are brought about by ignorance and neglect of engaging in physical activities, eating junk and other unhealthy foods, inappropriate patterns for meals, or even the combination of some of the causes. In addition, the behavioral trend that is now adopted where indoor activities like computer games, watching television for…