Organic Farming in Saudi Arabia Term Paper

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When regulations increase, the tendency to cheat might increase.

2.4 Switzerland/Denmark Examples for Organic Farming

Ruth Rossier (2005), College of Agriculture, Auburn University, purports in the study, "Role models and farm development options: A comparison of seven Swiss farm families,"

Following not yet rewritten: with the framework of agricultural policy that has changed dramatically since the 1990s including the introduction of direct payments and the enforcement of various agrarian reforms (Agricultural Policy 2002 and 2007), a high degree of flexibility has been required of Swiss farm families. The previous price- and sales-supported policy has been replaced by a policy aiming at economically, ecologically, and socially sustainable agriculture. On the one hand, this means ensuring more market proximity and competition in the agricultural sector; on the other, it entails environmentally sound production techniques that are compensated by direct payments (without the complete compensation of price decreases). This new framework has altered the room for manoeuvre of farming families considerably, thereby creating new challenges. Farming families must increasingly consider their family farms to be agricultural enterprises managed according to the principles of economic efficiency. Furthermore, they must fulfill certain ecological criteria. Because of these transformations, many farming families must reconsider their situations and farming practices and devise a new orientation to farming (¶ 1).

Rossier (2005) explains that Switzerland is characterized by grassland. About 62% of all farms carry out pasture farming with cows, sheeps, and goats. Only few of the farms are pure tillage (7%), fruit growing or viticulture farms (8%), or gardening (2%). The remaining farms are mixed farms (18%) with animals as well as cereals, fruits, or vegetables. Most of the farms are owned and operated by families. On a full-time farm, a farm family manages on average an agricultural area of 20 hectares (¶ 2).

This study concentrates on illustrating the action orientations of Swiss fanning families and farm development strategies. In particular, it focuses on the social structures within the family that lead to certain decision-making patterns and action structures. Moreover, it will attempt to analyse the effects of these developments with regard to options for economic development. From an economic point-of-view, a farming family might have different options for development. However, these choices do not always prove to be compatible with the individual's concept of family life. Therefore, the author also asks what "moral" laws, rules, and values the farming families adhere to and how these can affect the long-term orientation and development of a farm (Rossier, 2005, ¶ 3).

In order to illustrate the complex interrelation between families and farms, individual case studies were conducted. There are various scientific concepts concerning and approaches to individual case studies. For this study, a reconstructive approach based on the theory of social action, namely the method of case reconstruction (Hildenbrand, 1999), was employed. The method of case reconstruction is based on the dialectic of the general and the particular. The general represents the objective possibilities for action of a case (a family). The particular comprises the choices the family makes with regard to these possibilities (Rossier, 2005, ¶ 4).

The Bieri Family (Case 1)

The family investigated is much like a survival community, one having withstanding potential. In this very traditionalistic environment, the process of modernisation has only recently set in and only to a certain extent. There are two reasons for this: the region is very Catholic and it is very isolated. This is a family adhering to traditional action patterns. In other words, the basic principles by which the family lives and that make their lives worth living have not changed and have been adapted to modernisation requirements only marginally (Rossier, 2005, Role models and…section, ¶ 1).

6-next finish cutting study down page 60 in raw research

Introduction for 4-next in raw research page 28

Margarita Genius, lecturer in economics, Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece, Christos J. Pantzios, assistant professor of economics, Department of Economics, University of Patras, Greece and Vangelis Tzouvelekas (2006), assistant professor of economics, Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece, assert in the journal article, "Information acquisition and adoption of organic farming practices,"

Introduction for 7-next in raw research page 82

Justin Brunjes (2008), feature writer, asserts in the article, "What's in a label? It only took accidental purchases of non-alcoholic canned Panache and foul tasting caffeine-free coffee substitute, before I realised the importance of not shopping on autopilot in foreign countries. However, the ability to identify the contents of a package with the absence of full-colour visual aids is only the beginning of effective shopping in Switzerland,"

Introduction for 9-next in raw research page 88

Using this from chapter 1 for "seed" to help sprout creativity

The dissertation would require that certain data would need to be collected about output data and information throughout the organic farm implementation. Maybe one small portion of a field could be used as a control to compare against other areas of the same farm for example. The dissertation project would offer opportunities to understand and document strengths and weaknesses of the organic farming implementation process and clearly state what improvements over prior methods make themselves evident.

Since organic farming systems are based on the functional dynamic interaction between soils, plants, animals, humans, ecosystems and environment, an important premise for research in organic farming will be developed.

2.5 Switzerland Organic Farming

2.6 Implementing Organic Farming Switzerland

2.7 Denmark Organic Farming

2.7.1 Implementing Organic Farming Denmark

2.8 Similar/Different Factors for Organic Farming in Switzerland/Denmark

2.9 Best Elements for Implementing Organic Farming in Saudi Arabia

Still adding to the following references:

REFERENCES

Agricultural development in Saudi Arabia. (2010). The Saudi Network. Retrieved April 28, 2010

from http://www.the-saudi.net/saudi-arabia/agriculture.htm

Background note: Saudi Arabia. (2010). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved April 28, 2010

from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3584.htm

Brunjes, J. (2008). What's in a label? It only took accidental purchases of non-alcoholic canned

Panache and foul tasting caffeine-free coffee substitute, before I realised the importance of not shopping on autopilot in foreign countries. However, the ability to identify the contents of a package with the absence of full-colour visual aids is only the beginning of effective shopping in Switzerland. Swiss News. Swiss News. 2008. Retrieved April 28,

2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-181569995.html

Canavari, M. & Olson, K.D. (2007). Organic food: Consumers' choices and farmers'

opportunities. New York, NY: Springer.

Davidson, S. (2005). Going organic. Ecos. CSIRO Publishing. Retrieved April 28, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-139520504.html

Dimitri, C. & Oberholtzer, L. (2006). EU and U.S. organic markets face strong demand under different policies. The United States Department of Agriculture. Amber Waves. Retrieved April 28, 2010 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/Amberwaves/February06/Features/Feature1.htm

Famous organic quotes. (2010). Quote Monk.com. Retrieved April 28, 2010 from http://www.quotemonk.com/quotes/famous-o/organic-quotes.htm

Fliessbach, a., Oberholzer, H.R., Gunst, L. & Mader, P. (2007). Soil organic matter and biological soil quality indicators after 21 years of organic and conventional farming.

Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. Volume 118, pp. 273 -- 284. Science Direct.

Retrieved April 28, 2010 from http://www.botanischergarten.ch/Organic/Fliessbach-Soil

Organic-Matter-21-years-2007.pdf

Genius, M., Pantzios, C.J. & Tzouvelekas, V. (2006). Information acquisition and adoption of organic farming practices. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. Western Agricultural Economics Assn Utah State University. Retrieved April 28, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1066661391.html

Halweil, B. (2006). Can organic farming feed us all?. World Watch. Worldwatch Institute.

Retrieved April 28, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1145475719.html

Rossier, R. (2005). Role models and farm development options: A comparison of seven Swiss farm families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies. Journal of Comparative Family

Studies. Retrieved April 28, 2010 from HighBeam Research:

http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-138069392.html

Vogl, C.R., Kilcher, L. & Schmidt, H. (2005). Research, reviews, practices, policy and technology.…[continue]

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